The Holy Roman Empire was a political entity in Western, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. From the accession of Otto I in 962 until the twelfth century, the Empire was the most powerful monarchy in Europe.
- German, Medieval Latin (administrative/liturgical/ceremonial), Various
- Confederal feudal elective monarchy, mixed monarchy (since Imperial Reform)
- Multiple: thaler, guilder, groschen, Reichsthaler
- Imperial Diet
The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), occasionally but unofficially referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a group of regions and free cities in central Europe under the rule of an emperor who was elected by the princes and magistrates of the regions and ...
- No official capital, various imperial seats
- Elective monarchy
- German, Latin (administrative/liturgical/ceremonial), Various
- Roman Catholicism (800–1806), Lutheranism (1555–1806), Calvinism (1648–1806), see details
31 de ene. de 2023 · Holy Roman Empire, German Heiliges Römisches Reich, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium, the varying complex of lands in western and central Europe ruled by the Holy Roman emperor, a title held first by Frankish and then by German kings for 10 centuries. The Holy Roman Empire existed from 800 to 1806.
The Holy Roman Empire was a complex political entity that existed in central Europe for most of the medieval and early modern periods and was generally ruled by a German-speaking Emperor.
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz . The emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.
- 6 August 1806
- Charlemagne (AD 800 formation), Otto the Great (AD 962 formation)
- 25 December 800
- Francis II
It originally comprised large parts of northern and central Italy. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century. In 773, Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, crossed the Alps to invade the Kingdom of the Lombards, which encompassed all of Italy except the Duchy of Rome, the Venetian Republic and the Byzantine possessions in the south.
The defining characteristic of the Holy Roman Empire was the idea that the Holy Roman Emperor represented the leading monarch in Europe and that their empire was the one true continuation of the Roman Empire of Antiquity, through proclamation by the popes in Rome.