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  1. Frederick I was King of Denmark and Norway. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over Denmark and Norway, when subsequent monarchs embraced Lutheranism after the Protestant Reformation. As king of Norway, Frederick is most remarkable in never having visited the country and was never crowned as such. Therefore, he was styled King of Denmark, the Vends and the Goths, elected King of Norway. Frederick's reign began the enduring tradition of calling kings of Denmark ...

  2. Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, RE, SKmd (Frederik André Henrik Christian; [a] born 26 May 1968) is the heir apparent to the Danish throne. He is the elder son of Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik . Contents 1 Early life 2 Education and career 3 Military career 4 Marriage and children 5 Areas of interest

    • Overview
    • Early life
    • Marriage and issue
    • Reign
    • Death and funeral

    Frederick IX was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972. Born into the House of Glücksburg, Frederick was the elder son of King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine of Denmark. He became crown prince when his father succeeded as king in 1912. As a young man, he was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. In 1935, he was married to Princess Ingrid of Sw...

    Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederick's grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Frederick's father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne. Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Frederick's father ascended the throne as King Christian X....

    In the 1910s, Alexandrine considered the two youngest daughters of her cousin Tsar Nicholas II, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, as possible wives for Frederick, until the execution of the Romanov family in 1918. In 1922, Frederick was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his seco...

    From 1942 until 1943, Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his father who was temporarily incapacitated after a fall from his horse in October 1942. On 20 April 1947, Christian X died, and Frederick succeeded to the throne. He was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace by Prime Minister Knud Kristensen. Frederick IX's reign saw...

    Shortly after the King had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he became ill with flu-like symptoms. After a few days rest, he suffered cardiac arrest and was rushed to the Copenhagen Municipal Hospital on 3 January. After a brief period of apparent improvement, the King's condition took a negative turn o...

    • Early Years and Education
    • Reign
    • Relationship with The Church
    • Areas of Interest
    • Youth and Marriage
    • Death and Burial
    • Legacy
    • Title, Style, Honours and Arms
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    Frederick was born on 1 July 1534 at Haderslevhus Castle, the son of Duke Christian of Schleswig and Holstein (later King Christian III of Denmark and Norway) and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, the daughter of Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg. His mother was the sister of Catherine, the first wife of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, and the mother of Eri...

    Proclaimed King

    Frederick's father Christian III died on 1 January 1559 at Koldinghus. Frederick was not present at his father's bedside when he died, a circumstance that did not endear the new king, now King Frederick II of Denmark, to the councillors who had grown to appreciate and revere Christian. On 12 August 1559 Frederick signed his haandfæstning (lit. "Handbinding" viz. curtailment of the monarch's power, a Danish parallel to the Magna Carta) and on 20 August 1559 Frederick II was crowned at the Chur...

    Conquest of Ditmarschen

    Within weeks of Christian's passing, Frederick joined with his uncles in Holstein, John and Adolf, in a military campaign to conquer the Ditmarschen, under Johan Rantzau. Frederik II's great-uncle, King John, had failed to subjugate the peasant republic in 1500, but the Frederick's 1559-campaign was a quick and relatively painless victory for the Danish Kingdom. The brevity and low cost of the campaign were cold comforts to the members of the Council of the Realm, Johan Friisin particular. Fr...

    Early relationship with the Council of the Realm

    The adversarial king–Council relationship improved relatively quickly however, and not because Frederik caved in to conciliar opposition. Rather, the two parties quickly learned to work together because their interests, and the Kingdom's, required that they did so. From an early time, the council invested much power in Frederick, as they had no desire to go back to the destructive near-anarchy of the pre-civil war years. Frederik would soon learn how to play the constitutional game, that is r...

    The necessity of maintaining order within the church meant that royal interference into ecclesiastical affairs was unavoidable. There was no longer an archbishop within the hierarchy, so the king was the final authority in matters that could not be settled by the bishops alone. As his father, Christian III, put it, kings were the ‘father to the sup...

    Though often stated as a drunkard and unlettered; leaving state affairs to his councillors to go hunting in the countryside, this is incorrect, and Frederick was highly intelligent. He craved the company of learned men, who composed his inner circle of intellectuals, and they had many interests.

    Anne Hardenberg

    As a young man, Frederick II had desired to marry the noblewoman, Anne Hardenberg, who had served as a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the Dowager Queen Dorothea of Denmark, however as she was not of princely birth, this was impossible.There is no evidence that either of them had any interest in entering af morganatic marriage and Anne Hardenberg was married six months after Frederick, after which there is no known contact between them.

    Possible matrimonies

    Negotiations to find a suitable royal bride were manifold during the 1560s, but mostly it came to nothing, often because Frederick strongly insisted on meeting the prospective bride before committing to her.The proposed matrimonies included: 1. Renata of Lorraine: Throughout the 1550s, Frederick's father Christian III strongly advocated a marriage alliance with the House of Lorraine, hoping that a match between his son Prince Frederik and claimant to the Danish throne Christina of Denmark’s d...

    Marriage to Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow

    On 20 July 1572, he was married to Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, a descendant of King John of Denmark, and also his own first half-cousin, through their grandfather, Frederick I, King of Denmark and Norway. Sophie was the daughter of Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Elizabeth of Denmark. Their marriage was harmonious and happy. Sophie is consistently mentioned in Frederick's handwritten diary as "mynt Soffye", meaning "my Sophie" and she followed him through the country as the cou...

    King Frederick II of Denmark died on 4 April 1588, aged 53, at Antvorskov. Frederik's passing was sudden and unexpected – recent historians speculate that his health deteriorated very rapidly as the result of lung cancer—and hence the central administration was unprepared.[citation needed] The royal succession was not in doubt, for Frederik's marri...

    Many recent historians, such as Poul Grinder-Hansen, Paul Douglas Lockhart, Thomas Kingston Derry and Frede P. Jensen have expressed, that it is difficult to see how the reign, and especially the later reign, of Frederik II could be viewed as anything other than a resounding success. Frederick's character have throughout time been misinterpreted by...

    Titles and styles

    1. 30 October 1536 – 1 January 1559: Frederick, Prince of Denmark 1.1. 1554 – 1 January 1559 (While in Scania ): Frederick, Prince of Scania 2. 1 January 1559 – 4 April 1588: By the Grace of God, King of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst.

    Derry, T. K. (Thomas Kingston), 1905-2001. (2008). A history of Scandinavia : Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3799-7. OCLC...
    Grinder-Hansen, Poul, 1956- (2013). Frederik 2. : Danmarks renæssancekonge [Frederick II: Denmark's Renaissance King] (1. udgave, 1. oplag ed.). [Copenhagen]. ISBN 978-87-02-08108-4. OCLC 859151055...
    Lockhart, Paul Douglas 1963– (2011). Denmark, 1513–1660 : the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927121-4. OCLC 844083309.
    Scocozza, Benito (1997). "Frederik 2.". Politikens bog om danske monarker [Politiken's book about Danish monarchs] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Politikens Forlag. pp. 120–124. ISBN 87-567-5772-7.
    The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy
    Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Frederick II. of Denmark and Norway" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–51.
    • Overview
    • Early life
    • King of Denmark and loss of Norway
    • Later life and succession
    • Descendants

    Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814, making him the last king of Denmark–Norway. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's mental illness and was referred to as the "Crown Prince Regent". For his motto he chose God and the just c...

    Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg. His parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, a day before his father's 19th birthday, when his mother was just 16. As the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically beca...

    Frederick became King of Denmark–Norway on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Frederick was interested in being elected there as well. Frederick actually was the first monarch of Denmark and Norway to descend from Gustav I of Sweden, who had secured Sweden's independence in 1520s after the period of the...

    Frederick VI was known as a patron of astronomy and in 1832 offered gold medal prizes to anyone who discovered a comet using a telescope. His successors continued this until 1850. The prize was terminated in the aftermath of the Three Years' War. On 23 February 1827, he granted a Royal Charter giving Serampore College in Danish India the status of ...

    Frederick VI and his wife Marie of Hesse-Kassel were the parents of eight children, six of whom died in infancy. Two daughters grew to adulthood and neither of them had children. The eight children of Frederick and Marie were

  3. Frederick VIII was King of Denmark from 29 January 1906 until his death in 1912. The eldest son of King Christian IX, nicknamed the Father-in-law of Europe, Frederick was related to royalty throughout Europe. He was heir apparent to the Danish throne and served as crown prince for more than 42 years. During the long reign of his father, he was largely excluded from influence and political power. Upon his father's death in 1906, he acceded to the throne at the advanced age of 62 ...

  4. Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death in 1670. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. He instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He also ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark. He was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of ...