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  1. Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Queen Constance of Sicily of the Hauteville dynasty . Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen.

  2. Frederick II (German: Friedrich II.; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King in Prussia from 1740 until 1772, and King of Prussia from 1772 until his death. His most significant accomplishments include his military successes in the Silesian wars , his re-organisation of the Prussian Army , the First Partition of Poland , and his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment .

    • Early Life
    • Rise to Power
    • Consolidation of Power
    • Friction with The Catholic Church
    • Frederick & Al-Kamil: The Sixth Crusade
    • The Emperor's Return
    • War with The Papacy Resumed
    • Death & Legacy

    Frederick II was the only son of Henry VI (King of Germany r. 1169-1197 CE; Holy Roman Emperor r. 1191-1197 CE) and Constance (l. 1154-1198 CE), the daughter of Roger II (r. 1130-1154 CE), the Norman king of Sicily. His other grandfather was the legendary German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190 CE). He was born in Jesi, Italyin 1194 CE and spent most of his life in the court of Palermo in Sicily. His father died in 1197 CE, when he was just three, and he was coronated the next year as the king of Sicily with his mother as regent. Constance alienated the German lords, who had served under his father, to aggrandize her authority. Her main rival was Markward (d. 1202 CE), a German lord who claimed the regency of the young sovereign but was exiled. Constance died after ruling for a little over a year. In her will, she left young Frederick under the guardianship of Pope Innocent III (l. c. 1160-1216 CE). This move was not simply motivated by her devout Catholic faith but also...

    Frederick dismissed his guardian in 1208 CE and now sought to restore control over Sicily. In 1209 CE, Innocent III arranged for Frederick, who was 14 at that time, to be married to a 30-year-old Spanish princess, Constance of Aragon (l. 1179-1222 CE). This marriage was a political move and allowed Frederick to acquire a sizeable army that he used to consolidate his hold over Sicily. Constance also bore Frederick's first son, Henry VII (l. 1211-1242 CE). His queen advised him in important matters of the state, and, upon her deathin 1222 CE, Frederick is said to have placed his crown on her statue as an acknowledgment of her services. The king of Sicily was also entitled to rule over his father's dominion: the Holy Roman Empire. The empire(962-1806 CE) spanned over Germany, Sardinia, and parts of Northern Italy and served as the protector of the Catholic Church. This freed Otto's subjects from their oaths and exposed his land to attacks from rival European powers. Philip Augustus(r....

    Pope Innocent III died in 1216 CE and was succeeded by Honorius III (l. 1150-1227 CE). The new pope demanded that the emperor repay the papacy for its kindness and Frederick agreed to separate Sicily from the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and to lead a crusade to the Holy Land. The Papal States could not allow the lands in the north and south to be united under one person, exposing papal territory to an invasion from both sides. He persuaded the Pope that Sicily was vital in supporting a crusade, hence he did not cede it, and he remained too preoccupied to join the armies of the Fifth Crusade(1218-1221 CE) when they departed Europe. Meanwhile, Frederick had set upon stabilizing and glorifying his realm; he even established the first-ever state university in medieval Europe, the University of Naples in 1224 CE. With Sicily set to order and the collaborators of pretenders crushed, Frederick could sigh in relief.

    To further pique Frederick's interest in the Holy Land, the Pope arranged a marriage for him with the teenage daughter of King John of Jerusalem (r. 1210-1215 CE, also known as John of Brienne): Yolande of Brienne (l. 1212-1228 CE, also known as Isabella II of Jerusalem). Jerusalem was not under crusader control but the king's seat persisted as did the hope that the holy citywould be reconquered. King John offered the hand of his beloved daughter on the condition that Frederick would not lay claim on the throne of Jerusalem for as long as John lived. The couple was married in 1225 CE in Brindisi, Southern Italy. According to some historians (although others disagree), Frederick broke his promise and the queen was mistreated, as described by historian Harold Lamb: The Pope's patience was running out, and Frederick, now the King of Jerusalem (r. 1225-1228 CE), set out for the Holy Land in 1227 CE but was stricken by malaria and had to turn back. He recovered but delayed his departure...

    Frederick had opened up a channel of communication with the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt al-Kamil (r. 1218-1238 CE) since 1226 CE. This man was the nephew of the great Saladin (l. 1137-1193 CE) who had secured Jerusalem for Islam in 1187 CE; he, however, was willing to give away what his ancestors had fought and died for. Al-Kamil needed to extend his authority beyond Egypt into lands that were once held united under Saladin. He needed to spare himself a warwith the Crusaders to fight his brother, al-Mu'azzam (r. 1218-1227 CE), the Sultan of Damascus. On February 18, 1229 CE, the treaty of Jaffa was signed between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Sultan of Egypt. Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and part of the Levantine coast was in European hands along with a pilgrim route to Jaffa. In return, Frederick promised free passage to the Muslims, and possession of the TempleMount and Al Aqsa mosque; the city walls which had been pulled down beforehand were not to be rebuilt. Frederick unceremon...

    Frederick raced back to his realm to chastise the intruders. In his absence, the Pope had sent armies to encroach on his lands. Upon his return in 1229 CE, Frederick defeated the papal army but did not attempt to attack papal holdings in Italy. The first phase of the war ended in 1230 CE with the treaty of Ceprano signed between Gregory and Frederick. The emperor further strengthened his control over the kingdom of Sicily and extended centralized authority over the realm via the Constitutions of Melfi (1231 CE). In Germany, his absence had led to problems. Henry VII was alienating the German princes and even seeking support from non-German cities. This change in policy was threatening Hohenstaufen control over Germany and when Henry refused to be set straight, Frederick made his move. The emperor brought only his influence into Germany in 1235 CE, and this proved to be enough. Henry, seeing that his supporters had deserted him and that his rebellion had died out, begged for mercy. T...

    The fighting with the Pope restarted owing to a minor dispute over lands in Lombardy. The Lombards, backed up by the Pope, resisted Frederick's authority but their forces were defeated decisively in the battleof Cortenuova (1237 CE). The emperor then received the news in 1239 CE, that he had yet again been excommunicated. Although vehement in its opposition to Frederick, the Papacy showed shocking neglect towards the Mongol threat advancing fast on Europe and the real Crusader cause in Egypt. The Mongols had risen from the steppes of Asia in the early 13th century CE, and after sweeping resistance in Asia, they started their advance on Eastern Europe in 1236 CE. They crushed a European confederacy at the Battle of Legnica (1241 CE) and incurred severe losses upon Poland and Hungary from 1241 to 1242 CE. Mongol emissaries approached Frederick, demanding his submission to their supreme leader Ogedei Khan (r. 1229-1241 CE), but Frederick ignored them. Knowing the tactics of Mongol warf...

    It was not the Pope's crusade that triumphed over Fredrick, but his ailment. Before he had a chance of winning back lost ground, he died of dysentery in 1250 CE in Castel Fiorentino, in Apulia, Southern Italy. He was buried in the Cathedral of Palermo. The throne passed to his only living legitimate son Conrad IV, but the new king died just four years later in 1254 CE, leaving the throne to his son Conradin (r. 1254-1268 CE), also known as Conrad V. He continued resisting the Pope but was finally defeated and executed in 1268 CE. Frederick would forever be immortalized in the annals of history by his nickname, Stupor Mundi, Wonder of the World. He had a passion for adventure and women, mastered falconry, horse-riding, lancing, and spoke six different languages. Despite the papal propaganda devised to weaken his support, Frederick was indeed a Christian ruler, although not a pious one. Though the Papacy survived this war, their dominance was nearing its end. The Pope exploited the re...

  3. 23/11/2021 · Frederick II, king of Sicily (1197–1250), duke of Swabia (as Frederick VI, 1228–35), German king (1212–50), and Holy Roman emperor (1220–50). A Hohenstaufen, he pursued his dynasty’s imperial policies against the papacy and the Italian city-states.

  4. 20/04/2021 · Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was Prussia's king from 1740 to 1786. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power.

    • Inclinaciones Juveniles Y Formación
    • Príncipe Heredero
    • Reinado
    • Opiniones Religiosas
    • El «Rey Masón»
    • Su Aparente Homosexualidad
    • Últimos años
    • Véase también
    • Enlaces Externos

    Federico nació en Berlín el 24 de enero de 1712.[1]​ A su padre (Federico Guillermo I) también se le conoce popularmente como el rey soldado, por su pasión por la milicia, que le lleva a desarrollar un fuerte ejército, que dirige por la famosa Guardia de Granaderos de Potsdam. Además, posee un fuerte temperamento, gobernando, además, Brandeburgo y Prusia con autoridad absoluta. En contraste, su madre es una mujer educada, carismática y muy culta, hija de Jorge I del Reino Unido. El nacimiento de Federico es bienvenido por su abuelo, Federico I, con un poco más énfasis del habitual, pues dos de sus nietos habían fallecido a edad temprana. A la muerte de este, en 1713, Federico Guillermo se convierte en el nuevo rey y Federico pasa a ser el príncipe heredero. El nuevo rey desea que sus hijos e hijas se eduquen como gente común y no como pertenecientes a la realeza, por lo que la educación de Federico se encomienda a una institutriz hugonote, con la que aprende simultáneamente francés...

    En 1732, la reina Sofía Dorotea, su madre, trata de acordar un matrimonio doble para Federico y su hermana, Guillermina de Prusia, con los herederos de la corona británica, la princesa Amelia y el príncipe Federico Luis de Gales, ambos hijos del rey Jorge II de Gran Bretaña. Sin embargo, por temor a una alianza entre Prusia y Gran Bretaña, el mariscal de campo Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff, también embajador austríaco en Berlín, soborna al Ministro de Guerra prusiano, Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow, y al embajador en Londres, Benjamin Reichenbach, dedicándose ambos a contaminar las relaciones entre los dos países. Federico Guillermo, su padre, finalmente propone condiciones tan gravosas para el Reino Unido (tales como la entrega del ducado de Jülich o el Estado de Berg), que, al final, la propuesta matrimonial no llega a buen término.[9]​ Federico encuentra una aliada en su hermana Guillermina, con quien mantendrá una estrecha relación durante toda su vida. A sus 16 años, Feder...

    Federico accedió al trono a los 28 años de edad.[21]​ En el momento de su subida al trono como Rey en Prusia en 1740, Prusia estaba formada por una variedad de territorios separados, entre los que se encontraba el Ducado de Cleves, el Condado de Mark y el Condado de Ravensberg, al oeste del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico; el Margraviato de Brandeburgo, Pomerania Occidental y Pomerania Central, al este del Imperio, y Reino de Prusia (el antiguo Ducado de Prusia), fuera del Imperio y bordeando la República de las Dos Naciones. El título Rey en Prusia hacía referencia al señorío exclusivamente sobre el antiguo Ducado, y Federico se declararía Rey de Prusiaa partir de 1772, tras haber adquirido gran parte del resto de la región prusiana. Durante su largo reinado (1740 a 1786) se convierte en exponente del despotismo ilustrado, en el que introduce algunas reformas inspiradas en esta corriente. Impulsa la codificación del Derecho prusiano, según el principio de que la ley debe proteger a...

    Como miembro de la familia Hohenzollern, Federico II fue educado en el calvinismo, religión que practicó, al menos nominalmente, durante toda su vida. Sin embargo, debido a sus ideas ilustradas y su supuesta relación con la francmasonería, la religión nunca tuvo importancia en el pensamiento del rey, por lo que, a pesar de sus prácticas religiosas públicas (algo por otra parte indispensable en un rey), se podría ligar a Federico II con el pensamiento deísta.[62]​ Pese a sus ideales protestantes, cabe destacar la tolerancia de Federico hacia católicos y judíos en contraste con otros países de la Europa reformada. A pesar de ello, tan sólo aquellos que mantenían prácticas protestantes podían ser elegidos por el rey para desempeñar cargos públicos. Aunque respetaba a las dos ya nombradas religiones, sobre todo durante el final de su vida desarrolló un fuerte sentimiento en contra de otros credos. Ejemplos de esto son la desmantelación de conventos católicos en Polonia o su marcado anti...

    Según la leyenda masónica del grado 33 del Rito Escocés Antiguo y Aceptadoes el "Soberano Gran Comendador, Gran Maestro Universal y Conservador de la Antiquísima y muy respetable sociedad de antiguos Masones o Arquitectos Unidos", es decir, de la Masonería. Hasta el momento no hay nada concreto que lo demuestre, y de hecho, existen pruebas que más allá de beneficiar a esta historia solo la desmienten. Según la leyenda del nivel 33 del Rito Escocés Antiguo y Aceptado, Federico se propone asegurar y reunir en un solo cuerpo de masonería a todos los ritos del Régimen Escocés existentes, tales como: Rito de Heredom y, Rito del Oriente del Kilwining; Rito de San Andrés y Rito Templario; Rito de los Emperadores de Oriente y Occidente; Rito de los Príncipes del Real Secreto o de Perfección y Rito Escocés, y el Rito Primitivo. Esto difiere de la realidad, puesto que muchos de estos ritos siguen existiendo y están alejados de las jurisdicciones del Rito Escocés Antiguo y Aceptado. Para tal o...

    Existen sospechas presumiblemente fundadas sobre la supuesta homosexualidad de Federico II el Grande, pero ningún dato definitivo. Además del episodio de su fuga y la ejecución del teniente Hans Hermann von Katte, el mejor amigo de Federico, por asistirlo en sus planes para escaparse los dos a Inglaterra o por su reacción al momento de su muerte -se desmaya ante su decapitación-, que es por lo que se lo encasilla como su posible amante; existen diversos indicios que parecen confirmar su aparente homosexualidad.[64]​ Por ejemplo, su matrimonio con Isabel Cristina de Brunswick-Bevern por imposición paterna, de la que no tiene hijos y a la que destierra a un castillo remoto tras subir al trono. En general, Federico tiene una opinión muy pobre de las mujeres, aunque él mismo levanta rumores sobre sus amantes femeninas y su vida disoluta. Existen dos teorías sobre este comportamiento: la primera es que el rey era de gustos homosexuales, teoría defendida y difundida por Voltaire, y la seg...

    En 1785, Federico II firma un tratado de amistad y comercio con los Estados Unidos de América, el reconocimiento de la independencia de la nueva nación. El acuerdo incluye una cláusula novedosa, en el que los dos líderes de los poderes ejecutivos de ambos países garantizan un especial trato humano en la detención de los prisioneros de guerra.[65]​Cerca del final de su vida, Federico se vuelve cada vez más solitario. Su círculo de amigos en Sanssouci muere poco a poco y sin reemplazos, y Federico se convierte cada vez más en alguien crítico y arbitrario, por la frustración de la administración pública y su cuerpo de oficiales. La población de Berlín siempre anima al rey, cuando regresa a la ciudad desde giras provinciales o revistas militares, pero Federico no disfruta del placer de ser popular entre la gente común, ya que prefiere la compañía de sus mascotas, sus galgos italianos,[66]​ a quien se refiere como sus "marqueses de Pompadour", como una burla a la majestad de la realeza f...

    Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Federico II el Grande.
    Wikiquote alberga frases célebres de o sobre Federico II el Grande.
    Edición digital de las Obras de Federico II el Grande (Biblioteca universitaria de Tréveris)
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