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  1. Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher . Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher ( Rostock, Ducado de Mecklemburgo; 16 de diciembre de 1742 - Krieblowitz, Silesia; 12 de septiembre de 1819 ), príncipe de Wahlstatt, fue un militar prusiano comandante en las batallas de Leipzig y Lützen en 1813. Derrotado en la batalla de Ligny en 1815, fue decisiva su ...

  2. Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (German pronunciation: [ˈɡɛphaʁt ˈleːbəʁɛçt fɔn ˈblʏçɐ]; 21 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).

    • Leben
    • Große Schlachten
    • Redensart
    • Ehrungen
    • Rezeption
    • Literatur
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    • Einzelnachweise

    Die Anfänge

    Blücher stammte aus dem alten Adelsgeschlecht Blücher. Sein Vater war der hessen-kasselsche Rittmeister Christian Friedrich von Blücher (1696–1761). Seine Mutter war Dorothea Maria von Zülow (1702–1769) aus dem mecklenburgischen Uradelsgeschlecht derer von Zülow. Die Familie von Blücher besaß ursprünglich das Rittergut Groß-Renzow. Gebhard Leberechts Urgroßvater verlor diesen Familienbesitz aber während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges. Um kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen der Stände mit Herzog K...

    Jena und Auerstedt

    Im Jahr 1801 ernannte König Friedrich Wilhelm III. Blücher zum Generalleutnant. Blücher wohnte zwei Jahre in Emmerich am Rhein, wo er sich der Freimaurerloge „Pax inimica malis“ (lat., etwa: Friede – Feind des Bösen) anschloss, in der auch seine beiden Söhne und neun seiner Offiziere initiiert wurden. Nach dem Frieden von Lunéville nahm Blücher 1802 das Hochstift Münster, das Stift Essen und die Reichsabtei Werden für Preußen in Besitz. Blücher wurde Gouverneur der neu errichteten Provinz Wes...

    Der Rückzug nach Lübeck

    Anschließend sammelte Blücher Teile der versprengten Truppen und brachte mit Scharnhorst – hierbei begann ihre Freundschaft – 34 schwere Kanonen in Sicherheit. Blücher machte Scharnhorst zum Stabschef, und beide planten, französische Truppen auf sich zu ziehen, so dass Preußen neue Truppen aufstellen und die Franzosen erneut angreifen könne. Tatsächlich nahmen die Franzosen die Verfolgung mit drei Korps unter den Marschällen Bernadotte, Soult und Murat auf. Trotz mangelnder Verpflegung und vi...

    1806 – Schlacht bei Jena und Auerstedt
    1813 – Schlacht an der Katzbach
    1813 – Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig
    1815 – Schlacht bei Ligny

    Die Redensart„(Der/Die geht) ran wie Blücher (an der Katzbach)“ bezieht sich ebenfalls auf Blücher und umschreibt im Allgemeinen ein sehr stürmisches und entschlossenes Vorgehen.

    Blücher war Ehrenbürger von Berlin, Hamburg und Rostock (1816). Er wurde am 14. Juni 1814 von der Universität Oxford zum Dr. jur. h. c. ernannt (gemeinsam mit Wellington und Metternich) und am 3. August 1814 von der Berliner Universität zum Dr. phil. h. c. (gemeinsam mit Hardenberg, Yorck, Gneisenau, Kleist, Bülow und Tauentzien). Im Waterloo-Saal der Hauptresidenz Windsor Castlehängt auf dem Ehrenplatz an der Kopfseite das Bildnis von Wellington und an seiner rechten Seite das von Blücher. George Stephensonnannte eine seiner ersten Lokomotiven „Blücher“. Graf von Donnersmark legte 1913 die "Blücher-Schächte" im schlesischen Kreis Rybnik an. Zudem wurden in Niederschlesien die Orte Blüchersruh (Kreis Breslau) und Blüchertal (Gut und Ort lagen im Kreis Trebnitz) nach ihm benannt. Blücher ist – neben Hindenburg – der einzige Träger des Sterns des Großkreuzesdes Eisernen Kreuzes („Eisernes Kreuz mit goldenen Strahlen“). In Köln wurde der Blücherpark nach ihm benannt, in Aachen der Blüc...

    Der Blücher, ein Schuh, geht auf Marschall Blücher zurück, der seine Soldaten mit diesem Schuhmodell (damals noch als Stiefel) für den Siegeszug gegen Napoleon ausstatten ließ. Die international gebräuchliche Bezeichnung verweist noch auf seine Ursprünge als robuster Armeestiefel. Blüchernist ein Glückskartenspiel, das nach dem Generalfeldmarschall benannt wurde, da er selbst es auch gerne gespielt habe.

    Ältere Literatur

    1. Karl August Varnhagen von Ense: Leben des Fürsten Blücher von Wahlstatt. Reimer, Berlin 1826 (Google Buch in der Google-Buchsuche). 2. Auflage 1845 (Google Buchin der Google-Buchsuche). 2. Anekdoten, Züge und Skizzen aus dem Leben des Königlich Preußischen Feldmarschalls Lebrecht von Blücher. Basse, Quedlinburg [u. a.] 1842 (Digitalisat) 3. Carl Ludwig Bieske: Der Feldmarschall Fürst Gebhard Leberecht Blücher von Wahlstatt. Eine biographische Skizze. Mittler und Sohn, Berlin 1862 (books.go...

    Neuere Literatur

    1. Friedrich Franz von Conring: Blücher.Lindner, Leipzig 1936. 2. Kurt von Priesdorff: Soldatisches Führertum. Band 2, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt Hamburg, o. O. [Hamburg], o. J. [1937], DNB 367632772, S. 413–427, Nr. 899. 3. Hans Haussherr: Blücher von Wahlstatt, Gebhard Leberecht Fürst. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4, S. 317–319 (Digitalisat). 4. Tom Crepon: Leberecht von Blücher. Leben und Kämpfe. Biografie. Neues Leben, Berli...

    Literatur von und über Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek
    Werke von und über Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher in der Deutschen Digitalen Bibliothek
    Biografie auf preussen-chronik.de
    ↑ Wolfgang von Unger: Blücher. Unikum Verlag, Bremen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8457-2079-1.
    ↑ https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/sfz35354.html#ndbcontent
    ↑ Leopold Zedlitz-Neukirch (Freiherr von): Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon. Erster Band A–D. Gebrüder Reichenbach, Leipzig 1836, S. 256
    ↑ Jens Hennig: Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. In: Ilona Buchsteiner (Hrsg.): Mecklenburger in der deutschen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Ingo Koch Verlag, Rostock 2001, S. 49.
    • Summary
    • The Beginnings
    • Jena and Auerstedt
    • The Retreat to Lübeck
    • Wars of Liberation
    • The Battle of Waterloo
    • Age and Death
    • About The Personality
    • Family
    • Museum

    Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, from 1814 Prince Blücher von Wahlstatt († September 12, 1819 in Krieblowitz), was a Prussian field marshal who became famous for defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Popularly called “Marshal Forward,” he was among the most popular heroes of the wars of liberation in Europe. After joining the Swedish cavalry, Blücher was captured by Prussian troops in 1760 and entered their service. He was promoted for his successes in the battle of Kirrweiler in 1794 and took part in the battle of Auerstedt in 1806 as a brigade commander. There he met his future chief of staff, Gerhard David von Scharnhorst. After the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, he initially transferred to the War Department and then retired. At the beginning of the wars of liberation Blücher returned to service and took part in the battles of Großgörschen and Bautzen in May 1813. In August 1813 he was victorious in the Battle of Katzbach. For his successes in the Battle of Leipzig in October 18...

    Blücher came from the old noble family Blücher. His father was the Hesse-Kassel cavalry captain Christian Friedrich von Blücher (1696-1761). His mother was Dorothea Maria von Zülow (1702-1769) from the Mecklenburg noble family of the von Zülows. The von Blücher family originally owned the manor of Groß-Renzow. However, Gebhard Leberechts great-grandfather lost this family estate during the Thirty Years” War. To escape warlike disputes between the estates and Duke Karl Leopold, his mother went to Rostock, where Blücher was born. Gebhard had six older brothers and two sisters. The quite poor conditions caused his parents to send him together with his older brother Ulrich Siegfried to the sister on the Swedish island of Rügen. She was married to the Swedish chamberlain von Kradwitz. The brothers did not enjoy a basic intellectual education; rather, they devoted themselves almost exclusively to physical training. After Sweden”s entry into the Seven Years” War in 1757, the brothers joine...

    In 1801, King Frederick William III appointed Blücher a lieutenant general. Blücher lived for two years in Emmerich on the Rhine, where he joined the Masonic lodge “Pax inimica malis” (Latin, roughly: Peace – Enemy of Evil), in which his two sons and nine of his officers were also initiated. After the Peace of Lunéville, Blücher took possession of the High Abbey of Münster, the Essen Abbey and the Imperial Abbey of Werden for Prussia in 1802. Blücher became governor of the newly established province of Westphalia, with whose chief president Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein he became friends. In the years 1802-1806 he was master of the chair of the lodge “Zu den drey Balken”. There he also had himself painted in masonic clothing. At the outbreak of the war in 1806, he joined the corps of General Ernst von Rüchel with the Westphalian troops. Both tried in vain to persuade the Elector Wilhelm I of Hesse-Kassel to enter the war on the Prussian-Saxon side instead of remaining ne...

    Blücher then gathered parts of the scattered troops and with Scharnhorst – here their friendship began – brought 34 heavy cannons to safety. Blücher made Scharnhorst his chief of staff, and both planned to draw French troops to themselves so that Prussia could raise new troops and attack the French again. In fact, the French took up the pursuit with three corps under Marshals Bernadotte, Soult, and Murat. Despite a lack of rations and many deaths from exhaustion – 700 kilometers were covered in 20 days since Jena and Auerstedt – the French managed to elude them. Initially 10,000 strong, the army grew to 21,000 by merging with the retreating forces of the Duke of Weimar on the east bank of the Müritz. Marshal Bernadotte sent two appeals for honorable surrender, but Blücher rejected them despite the hopeless situation. At Strelitz alone, Blücher had lost 5,000 men to enemy attacks and starvation. Blücher now led the troops to Lübeck, which as a Free Imperial City was neutral and almos...

    Blücher passionately called for the liberation struggle against France and turned to the Prussian army reformers. Thus he was not approved at the Prussian court, which was officially allied with France. When French agents tracked him down while he was secretly training unauthorized troops (“Krümpers”), he was forced to leave active service in 1812. Frederick William III gave Blücher the land in the Neustadt region (today Prudnik). In November of the same year, Blücher leased Kunzendorf, Mühlsdorf, Wackenau and Achthuben to the local farmer Hübner in exchange for 2,000 thalers, rolls of linen and yarn. His wife also moved to Kunzendorf. While living in the Neustadt area, he financed the families of fallen soldiers, gave the local priest a few liters of beer each day, and paid a doctor from Neustadt to treat the poor. Thanks to his efforts, a spa called “Blücher”s Spring” was founded in Kunzendorf (which, together with the castle, was destroyed as a result of the fighting for Neustadt...

    After Napoleon”s return from exile on Elba, Blücher took charge of the 150,000-strong Prussian army in Belgium, but was defeated at the Battle of Ligny on June 16, 1815. Nevertheless, he advanced and two days later intervened with his army in the Battle of Waterloo just in time to give the already wavering forces of the English general Wellington (“I wish it were night, or the Prussians would come”) victory-deciding support against Napoleon. As a reward, Frederick William III gave him a city palace in Berlin. In agreement with Wellington, whose troops were completely exhausted, Blücher then advanced alone with his troops on Paris in rapid marches and occupied it on July 7, 1815. Blücher had neither interest nor share in the negotiations that subsequently began, but kept aloof. Also read, biographies – Otto I of Greece

    In the same year Blücher was awarded the Blücher Star, a special form of the Iron Cross donated for him. Following a visit to London, where he was received by the king and celebrated as a hero, he retired to his Krieblowitz castle, but visited Karlovy Vary regularly. He died in Krieblowitz on September 12, 1819, and was later buried there in a mausoleum created for him. The round tower building erected in 1846-1853 next to the family tomb suffered damage by Soviet soldiers on February 25, 1945 and other acts of vandalism after the war, during which Blücher”s coffin was removed. The grave has been empty ever since. The whereabouts of the body are unknown. Also read, biographies – Aristippus

    Blücher was popular with the troops. Even before Scharnhorst”s military reform, he led his soldiers without corporal punishment, commandeered energetically for them, and even overlooked looting. He did not excel much in strategy or tactics (though his chiefs of staff, such as Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, whom he trusted, were loyal to him), but his daredevil, occasionally foolhardy and affable temperament distinguished him from many generals in the coalition armies. His temperament and willingness to attack led to his nickname “Marshal Forward.” Blücher”s linguistically quite idiosyncratic letters reflect his character very well. He wrote the following letter to his wife on May 4, 1813, two days after the battle of Großgörschen: There were also bizarre facets in Blücher”s behavior: According to the testimony of Hermann von Boyen, Blücher claimed to be pregnant by an elephant and believed that the French had heated the floor of his room red-hot, which is why he only walked on tiptoe. T...

    Blücher was married twice. His first wife was Karoline Amalie von Mehling († 17 June 1791), whom he had married on 21 June 1773. His wife”s parents were the Polish colonel Friedrich Wilhelm von Mehling and Bernhardine von Bojanowska. He had seven children with her, including: His second wife became Amalie von Colomb († April 16, 1850) on July 19, 1795. She was the daughter of the war and domain councilor Peter Colomb and Maria Elisabeth Bacmeister. This marriage remained childless. The saying “(DerDie geht) ran wie Blücher (an der Katzbach)” also refers to Blücher and generally describes a very stormy and determined approach. Blücher was an honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock (1816). He was appointed Dr. jur. h. c. by Oxford University on June 14, 1814 (together with Wellington and Metternich) and Dr. phil. h. c. by Berlin University on August 3, 1814 (together with Hardenberg, Yorck, Gneisenau, Kleist, Bülow and Tauentzien). In the Waterloo Room of the main residence Wi...

    The town of Kaub on the Rhine has commemorated the marshal and his Rhine crossing of 1814 since 1913 with its Blücher Museum Kaub. Also read, biographies – Odysseas Elytis

    • Biography
    • Campaigns
    • Works
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    Early life

    Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher was born in Rostock in the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a Baltic port in northern Germany. His family had been landowners in northern Germany since at least the 13th century. He began his military career at sixteen, when he joined the Swedish Army as a Hussar. At the time Sweden was at war with Prussia in the Seven Years' War. Blücher took part in the Pomeranian campaign of 1760, where he was captured in a skirmish with Prussian Hussars. The colonel of the Prus...

    Napoleonic Wars

    |date=}} Blücher was one of the leaders of the war party in Prussia in 1805–1806 and served as a cavalry general in the disastrous campaign of the latter year. At the double Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Blücher fought at Auerstedt, repeatedly charging at the head of the Prussian cavalry, but too early and without success. In the retreat of the broken armies he commanded the rearguard of the army of Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. Upon the capitulation of the main body after the...

    Hundred Days and later life

    After the war he retired to Silesia, but the return of Napoleon from Elba soon called him back to service. He was put in command of the Army of the Lower Rhine, with General August von Gneisenau as his chief of staff. In the campaign of 1815, the Prussians sustained a serious defeat at the outset at Ligny (June 16), in the course of which the old field marshal was repeatedly ridden over by cavalry and lay trapped under his dead horse for several hours, his life saved only by the devotion of h...

    1760: Pomeranian Campaign (as Swedish soldier; captured by Prussia; changed sides)
    Seven Years' War
    1787: Expedition to the Netherlands with Red Hussars
    1793–1794: French campaigns with Red Hussars

    His collected writings and letters (together with those of Yorckand Gneisenau) appeared in 1932: 1. Gesammelte Schriften und Briefe/ Blücher, Yorck, Gneisenau, compiled and edited by Edmund Th. Kauer (Berlin-Schöneberg: Oestergaard, [1932]) His campaign journal covering the years 1793 to 1794 was published in 1796: 1. Kampagne-Journal der Jahre 1793 und 1794(Berlin: Decker, 1796) A second edition of this diary, together with some of Blücher's letters, was published in 1914: 1. Vorwärts! Ein Husaren-Tagebuch und Feldzugsbriefe von Gebhardt Leberecht von Blücher, introduced by General Field Marshal von der Goltz, edited by Heinrich Conrad (Munich: G. Müller, [1914]) An account of his life, with his death at Krieblowitz and family history, was written by Gebhard Leberecht, the fourth Prince Blücher, and edited by his wife Evelyn Princess Blücherwith Desmond Chapman-Huston: 1. Memoirs of Prince Blücher(London: Murray, 1932)

    Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) "Blücher, Gebhard Leberecht von" Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.) Cambridge University Press
    Crepon, Tom (1999). Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher: sein Leben, seine Kämpfe. Rostock: Hinsdorff. ISBN 3-356-00833-1.
    von Ense, K. A. Varnhagen (1826). Leben des Fürsten Blücher von Wahlstadt. Berlin: G. Reimer.
    Henderson, Ernest F. (1994). Blücher and the uprising of Prussia against Napoleon, 1806-1815. Aylesford: R.J. Leach. ISBN 1-873050-14-3.
    "Blücher, Gebhard Leberecht von". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 3 (9th ed.). 1878.This source gives “Black Hussars” for the name of his old regiment.
  3. Gebhard Lebrecht von Blücher (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819, sunk 24 January 1915 and again, sunk 9 April 1940) is the 'forgotten' general at the Battle of Waterloo. If in Britain (or just England , the Duke of Wellington is famed as the victor and Napoleon the unfortunate loser by the French , no one can now commemorate Blücher and his Prussian army.

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