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  1. The Catholic Church in England and Wales has five provinces: Birmingham, Cardiff, Liverpool, Southwark and Westminster. There are 22 dioceses which are divided into parishes (for comparison, the Church of England and Church in Wales currently have a total of 50 dioceses).

  2. The Catholic Church in England included about 50,000 people in traditional ("recusant") Catholic families. They generally kept a low profile. Their priests usually came from St Edmund's College , a seminary founded in 1793 by English refugees from the French revolution.

  3. Modern Catholic No Church of St Mark, Reading: Reading, Berkshire: Modern Catholic No St Mary Magdalen's Church, Oxford: Oxford, Oxfordshire Anglican Catholic No St Michael and St Mary Magdalene's Church, Easthampstead: Easthampstead, Bracknell, Berkshire Liberal Catholic No Church of St Peter and St Paul, Wantage: Wantage, Oxfordshire

    Parish Church
    Holborn, Camden, London
    Yes (Bishop of Fulham)
    Traditional Catholic
    Yes (Bishop of Fulham)
    Liberal Catholic
    City of London, Greater London
    Modern Catholic
    • Middle Ages
    • Reformation
    • Stuart Period
    • 18th Century
    • 19th Century
    • 20th Century
    • See Also
    • External Links


    In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England claiming he was the rightful heir to Edward the Confessor. He appealed to Pope Alexander II who gave his blessing and ordered English clergy to submit to William's authority. At the time of the Norman Conquest, there were only 15 diocesan bishops in England, increased to 17 in the 12th century with the creation of the sees of Ely and Carlisle. This is far fewer than the numbers in France and Italy. A further four medieval dioceses in Wales c...

    Henry VIII

    Catholicism taught that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works (see synergism). God's grace was given through the seven sacraments—baptism, confirmation, marriage, ordination, anointing of the sick, penance and the Eucharist. The Eucharist was celebrated during the Mass, the central act of Catholic worship. In this service, a priest consecrated bread and wine to become the body and blood of Christ through transubstantiation. The church ta...

    Edward VI and Mary I

    Edward VI (reigned 1547–1553), Henry's son, became king at the age of nine. Under the guidance of Protestant councilors, including Cranmer, the Church of England was transformed into a fully Protestant church. A Book of Homilies was published, from which all clergy were to preach from on Sundays. The homilies condemned relics, images, rosary beads, holy water, palms, and other "papistical superstitions". It also taught justification by faith alone. Government sanctioned iconoclasm led to the...

    Elizabeth I

    When Queen Mary died childless in November 1558, her half-sister became Queen Elizabeth I. The first task was to settle England's religious conflicts. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement established how the Church of England would worship and how it was to be governed. In essence, the Church was returned to where it stood in 1553 before Edward's death. The Act of Supremacy made the monarch the Church's supreme governor. The Act of Uniformity restored a slightly altered 1552 Book of Common Pr...

    James I

    In 1603, the King of Scotland inherited the English crown as James I. The Church of Scotland was even more strongly Reformed, having a presbyterian polity and John Knox's liturgy, the Book of Common Order. James was himself a moderate Calvinist, and the Puritans hoped the King would move the English Church in the Scottish direction. James, however, did the opposite, forcing the Scottish Church to accept bishops and the Five Articles of Perth, all attempts to make it as similar as possible to...

    English Civil War

    For the next century, through the reigns of James I and Charles I, and culminating in the English Civil War and the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, there were significant swings back and forth between two factions: the Puritans (and other radicals) who sought more far-reaching reform, and the more conservative churchmen who aimed to keep closer to traditional beliefs and practices. The failure of political and ecclesiastical authorities to submit to Puritan demands for more extensive reform...


    With the Restoration of Charles II, Anglicanism too was restored in a form not far removed from the Elizabethan version. One difference was that the ideal of encompassing all the people of England in one religious organisation, taken for granted by the Tudors, had to be abandoned. The 1662 revision of the Book of Common Prayerbecame the unifying text of the ruptured and repaired Church after the disaster that was the civil war. When the new king Charles II reached the throne in 1660, he activ...

    Spread of Anglicanism outside England

    The history of Anglicanism since the 17th century has been one of greater geographical and cultural expansion and diversity, accompanied by a concomitant diversity of liturgical and theological profession and practice. At the same time as the English reformation, the Church of Ireland was separated from Rome and adopted articles of faith similar to England's Thirty-Nine Articles. However, unlike England, the Anglican church there was never able to capture the loyalty of the majority of the po...

    The Church of Ireland, an Anglican establishment, was disestablished in Ireland in 1869. The Church in Wales would later be disestablished in 1919, but in England the Church never lost its established role. However Methodists, Catholics and other denominations were relieved of many of their disabilities through the repeal of the Test and Corporatio...


    The current form of military chaplain dates from the era of the First World War. A chaplain provides spiritual and pastoral support for service personnel, including the conduct of religious services at sea or in the field. The Army Chaplains Department was granted the prefix "Royal" in recognition of the chaplains' wartime service. The Chaplain General of the British Army was Bishop John Taylor Smithwho held the post from 1901 to 1925. While the Church of England was historically identified w...


    The Church Assembly was replaced by the General Synodin 1970. On 12 March 1994 the Church of England ordained its first female priests. On 11 July 2005 a vote was passed by the Church of England's General Synod in York to allow women's ordination as bishops. Both of these events were subject to opposition from some within the church who found difficulties in accepting them. Adjustments had to be made in the diocesan structure to accommodate those parishes unwilling to accept the ministry of w...

  4. The Church of England ( C of E) is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the 3rd century and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury .

  5. The Church of England is the leading Christian church in England. It is the church established by law: its formal head is the English monarch ( Charles III ). It is the mother church of the Anglican Communion. Its headquarters are at Church House, Westminster, in London . The Church of England understands itself to be both Catholic and Reformed :