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  1. Henry Clinton, William Henry Clinton, Harriet Clinton, Augusta Clinton, Frederick Henry Baddeley y Maj.-Gen. William Clinton-Baddeley [ editar datos en Wikidata ] Henry Clinton ( 16 de abril de 1730 - 23 de diciembre de 1795 ) fue un militar y político británico , conocido principalmente por su servicio como general durante la Guerra de Independencia de Estados Unidos .

  2. Early life. Henry Clinton was born on 16 April 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date widely propagated even in modern biographic summaries; [citation needed] according to biographer William Willcox, Clinton claimed in a notebook found in 1958 to be born in 1730, and that evidence from English peerage ...

    • 1751–1793
    • General
    • Military Pedigree
    • New York & Rhode Island Campaigns
    • Commander in Chief, North America 1778 - 82
    • British Southern Campaign & Arnold's Treason

    In 1772, Clinton was promoted to the rank of major general. The death of his wife that year likely triggered his decision to travel. In 1774, he crossed Europe to Vienna and the Balkans to observe the Russo-Turkish War in Bulgaria. At the time of his appointment as third in command in America in 1775, he was an experienced officer and a veteran of warfare, who had studied under some of the greatest military commanders of the era. His personality, however, proved to be a barrier to effective relationships with fellow senior officers in the American war. Clinton's long list of character faults included hypersensitivity, shyness, jealousy, and anger. On the other hand, he was the most intellecutal of the British generals in America. He read widely on military history. He was a cautious commander, preferring to gain victories at the cost of few casualties. As a subordinate commander, he favored flanking maneuvers over frontal assaults. This preference can be seen in his attempt to alter...

    Following his success at Newport, Clinton asked and received permission to return to England. While in England, he defended his actions at Charleston and sought to resign from serving under Howe. King George III refused Clinton permission to resign and ordered him to return and serve under Howe while also awarding Clinton a knighthood and membership in the Order of Bath. Sir Henry Clinton was unhappy at his return to America but hoped that he might replace Burgoyne when the two armies united at Albany, severing the rebellious colonies along the Hudson River.

    As commander in chief, Clinton was a gifted strategist who grasped the realities of the war and understood the difficulties facing the British. Clinton presciently feared a scenario in which the British would lack naval superiority and become vulnerable to the French. He also voiced concerns that without winning the hearts and minds of the Americans British military efforts would be in vain. He saw little value in taking territory only to abandon it and dissapoint local loyalists and leave them exposed to reprisals. Clinton mourned the loss of thousands of his troops, over 5,000 troops sent to serve in the Caribbean. He doubted whether Great Britain would ever have the resources to replace them. Despite the significant drop in manpower, Clinton received orders from Lord North's cabinet to wage a new campaign in the southern colonies upon the theory that loyalist support would augment the fewer regular soldiers available. In December 1778, Clinton complied by sending one thousand tro...

    Clinton moved to pacify the rest of South Carolina, following his success at Charleston. His proclamations backfired and served to ignite patriot resistance. On June 3, he issued a proclamation that required Americans to take a declaration of loyalty and be willing to take up arms in support of Britain. This proclamation contradicted earlier guarantees of pardons and paroles for prisoners of war. Partisan militia bands under leaders like Thomas Sumter and Francis Marionproliferated in response to this proclamation, leaving the Carolinas a hornet's nest as Clinton left to return to New York. He left Lord Cornwallis in command of British forces in the south. Their relationship, previously friendly and cooperative, did not recover after the fall of Charleston as Clinton's resignation request was finally accepted by Lord George Germain. Cornwallis expected to be Clinton's successor. Clinton, however, declined to resign, having just achieved a great victory. Unfortunately for Clinton and...

  3. Born in Newfoundland in 1730, Henry Clinton was the son of George Clinton, an admiral in the British Navy and the governor of Newfoundland. George received a post as governor of New York in 1741 and when he departed for the colonies in 1743, Henry accompanied his father.

  4. 19/12/2021 · Sir Henry Clinton, British commander in chief in America during the Revolutionary War. The son of George Clinton, a naval officer and administrator, Henry joined the New York militia in 1745 as a lieutenant. He went to London in 1749 and was commissioned in the British army in 1751. He was wounded

    • Early Life
    • Early Military Career
    • Seven Years' War
    • The American Revolution Begins
    • Failure in The South
    • Success in New York
    • in Command
    • Death

    Henry Clinton was likely born in 1730 to Admiral George Clinton (1686–1761), at the time the Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, and his wife Ann Carle (1696–1767). References are that available post his birth date as 1730 or 1738; English peerage records state the date as April 16, 1730, but list his birth location as Newfoundland and George Clinton did not arrive until 1731. Henry Clinton had at least two sisters who survived to adulthood, Lucy Mary Clinton Roddam, 1729–1750, and Mary Clinton Willes (1742–1813), and Lucy Mary was born in Stourton Parva, Lincolnshire, England. Little more than that is known about his childhood: what there is comes primarily from 19th-century brief biographical records and the letters and documents left by Clinton himself. When George Clinton was appointed governor of New York in 1743, the family moved there and it is assumed that Henry was educated in the colony and may have studied under Samuel Seabury (1729–1796), the first American Episcopal...

    Beginning his military career with the local militia in 1745, Clinton obtained a captain's commission the following year and served in the garrison at the recently captured fortress of Louisbourgon Cape Breton Island. Three years later, he traveled back to England with hopes to secure another commission in the British Army. Purchasing a commission as a captain in the Coldstream Guards in 1751, Clinton proved to be a gifted officer. Swiftly moving through the ranks by buying higher commissions, Clinton also benefited from family connections to the Dukes of Newcastle. In 1756, this ambition, along with assistance from his father, saw him gain an appointment to serve as aide-de-camp to Sir John Ligonier.

    By 1758, Clinton had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards (Grenadier Guards). Ordered to Germany during the Seven Years' War, he saw action at the Battles of Villinghausen (1761) and Wilhelmsthal (1762). Distinguishing himself, Clinton was promoted to colonel effective June 24, 1762, and appointed an aide-de-camp to the army's commander, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. While serving in Ferdinand's camp, he developed a number of acquaintances including future adversaries Charles Lee and William Alexander (Lord Stirling). Later that summer both Ferdinand and Clinton were wounded during the defeat at Nauheim. Recovering, he returned to Britain following the capture of Cassel that November. With the end of the war in 1763, Clinton found himself head of his family as his father had died two years earlier. Remaining in the army, he endeavored to resolve his father's affairs—which included collecting an unpaid salary, selling land in the colonies, and clearing a large...

    Crushed by the loss of wife, Clinton failed to take his seat in Parliament and instead traveled to the Balkans to study the Russian army in 1774. While there, he also viewed several of the battlefields from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Returning from the trip, he took his seat in September 1774. With the American Revolution looming in 1775, Clinton was dispatched to Boston aboard HMS Cerberus with Major Generals William Howe and John Burgoyne to provide assistance to Lieutenant General Thomas Gage. Arriving in May, he learned that fighting had begun and that Boston had fallen under siege. Assessing the situation, Clinton brusquely suggested manning Dorchester Heights but was refused by Gage. Though this request was denied, Gage did make plans for occupying other high ground outside of the city, including Bunker Hill.

    On June 17, 1775, Clinton took part in the bloody British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Initially tasked with providing reserves to Howe, he later crossed to Charlestown and worked to rally the dispirited British troops. In October, Howe replaced Gage as commander of British troops in America and Clinton was appointed as his second-in-command with the temporary rank of lieutenant general. The following spring, Howe dispatched Clinton south to assess military opportunities in the Carolinas. While he was away, American troops emplaced guns on Dorchester Heights in Boston, which compelled Howe to evacuate the city. After some delays, Clinton met a fleet under Commodore Sir Peter Parker, and the two resolved to attack Charleston, South Carolina. Landing Clinton's troops on Long Island, near Charleston, Parker hoped the infantry could aid in defeating the coastal defenses while he attacked from the sea. Moving forward on June 28, 1776, Clinton's men were unable to render assistan...

    Utilizing Clinton's ideas, which called for a strike through the Guan Heights via Jamaica Pass, Howe flanked the Americans and led the army to victory at the Battle of Long Islandin August 1776. For his contributions, he was formally promoted to lieutenant general and made a Knight of the Order of Bath. As tensions between Howe and Clinton increased due to the latter's constant criticism, the former dispatched his subordinate with 6,000 men to capture Newport, Rhode Island in December 1776. Accomplishing this, Clinton requested leave and returned to England in spring 1777. While in London, he lobbied to command a force that would attack south from Canada that summer but was denied in favor of Burgoyne. Returning to New York in June 1777, Clinton was left in command of the city while Howe sailed south to capture Philadelphia. Possessing a garrison of only 7,000 men, Clinton feared attack from General George Washington while Howe was away. This situation was made worse by calls for he...

    Taking command at Philadelphia, with Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis as his second-in-command, Clinton was immediately weakened by the need to detach 5,000 men for service in the Caribbean against the French. Deciding to abandon Philadelphia to focus on holding New York, Clinton led the army into New Jersey in June. Conducting a strategic retreat, he fought a large battle with Washington at Monmouthon June 28 which resulted in a draw. Safely reaching New York, Clinton began drawing up plans for shifting the focus of the war to the South where he believed Loyalist support would be greater. Dispatching a force late that year, his men succeeded in capturing Savannah, Georgia. After waiting for much of 1779 for reinforcements, Clinton was finally able to move against Charlestonin early 1780. Sailing south with 8,700 men and fleet led by Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot, Clinton laid siege to the city on March 29. After a prolonged struggle, the city fell on May 12 and over 5,000 Amer...

    Officially turning command over to Carleton in May, Clinton was made the scapegoat for the British defeat in America. Returning to England, he wrote his memoirs in an attempt to cleanse his reputation and resumed his seat in Parliament until 1784. Re-elected to Parliament in 1790, with assistance from Newcastle, Clinton was promoted to general three years later. The following year he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar, but died in Gibraltar on Dec. 23, 1795, before taking over the post.

    • Military And Naval History Expert
    • Vida Temprana
    • Carrera Militar Temprana
    • Guerra de Los Siete años
    • Comienza La Revolución Americana
    • Fracaso en El Sur
    • Éxito en Nueva York
    • en Comando
    • Muerte

    Henry Clinton probablemente nació en 1730 del almirante George Clinton (1686-1761), en ese momento el gobernador de Terranova y Labrador, y su esposa Ann Carle (1696-1767). Las referencias son las disponibles después de su fecha de nacimiento como 1730 o 1738; Los registros de nobleza ingleses indican la fecha como 16 de abril de 1730, pero enumeran su lugar de nacimiento como Terranova y George Clinton no llegó hasta 1731. Henry Clinton tenía al menos dos hermanas que sobrevivieron hasta la edad adulta, Lucy Mary Clinton Roddam, 1729-1750, y Mary Clinton Willes (1742-1813) y Lucy Mary nacieron en Stourton Parva, Lincolnshire, Inglaterra. Poco más que eso se sabe sobre su infancia: lo que hay proviene principalmente de breves registros biográficos del siglo XIX y las cartas y documentos que dejó el propio Clinton. Cuando George Clinton fue nombrado gobernador de Nueva York en 1743, la familia se mudó allí y se supone que Henry se educó en la colonia y pudo haber estudiado con Samuel...

    Al comenzar su carrera militar con la milicia local en 1745, Clinton obtuvo una comisión de capitán al año siguiente y sirvió en la guarnición de la fortaleza de Louisbourgrecientemente capturadaen la isla del Cabo Bretón. Tres años más tarde, viajó de regreso a Inglaterra con la esperanza de conseguir otra comisión en el ejército británico. Al adquirir una comisión como capitán de la Guardia de Coldstream en 1751, Clinton demostró ser un oficial talentoso. Moviéndose rápidamente a través de las filas comprando comisiones más altas, Clinton también se benefició de las conexiones familiares con los duques de Newcastle. En 1756, esta ambición, junto con la ayuda de su padre, lo llevó a obtener un nombramiento para servir como ayudante de campo de Sir John Ligonier.

    En 1758, Clinton había alcanzado el rango de teniente coronel en el 1er Foot Guards (Guardias de granaderos). Encargado a Alemania durante la Guerra delos Siete Años, vio acción en las Batallas de Villinghausen (1761) y Wilhelmsthal (1762). Distinguiéndose a sí mismo, Clinton fue ascendido a coronel a partir del 24 de junio de 1762 y nombrado ayudante de campo del comandante del ejército, el duque Fernando de Brunswick. Mientras servía en el campo de Ferdinand, desarrolló una serie de conocidos, incluidos los futuros adversarios Charles Leey William Alexander (Lord Stirling). Más tarde ese verano, tanto Ferdinand como Clinton resultaron heridos durante la derrota en Nauheim. Recuperándose, regresó a Gran Bretaña tras la captura de Cassel en noviembre. Con el fin de la guerra en 1763, Clinton se convirtió en el jefe de su familia, ya que su padre había muerto dos años antes. Mientras permanecía en el ejército, se esforzó por resolver los asuntos de su padre, que incluían cobrar un sa...

    Aplastado por la pérdida de su esposa, Clinton no pudo ocupar su escaño en el Parlamento y en su lugar viajó a los Balcanes para estudiar el ejército ruso en 1774. Mientras estuvo allí, también vio varios de los campos de batalla de la Guerra Ruso-Turca (1768-1774). . Al regresar del viaje, tomó asiento en septiembre de 1774. Con la Revolución Americanaen 1775, Clinton fue enviado a Boston a bordo del HMS Cerberuscon los generales de división William Howey John Burgoynepara brindar asistencia al teniente general Thomas Gage. Al llegar en mayo, se enteró de que habían comenzado los combatesy que Boston había sido sitiada.. Al evaluar la situación, Clinton sugirió bruscamente que manejara Dorchester Heights, pero Gage se negó. Aunque esta solicitud fue denegada, Gage hizo planes para ocupar otro terreno elevado fuera de la ciudad, incluido Bunker Hill.

    El 17 de junio de 1775, Clinton participó en la sangrienta victoria británica en la batalla de Bunker Hill. Inicialmente encargado de proporcionar reservas a Howe, luego cruzó a Charlestown y trabajó para reunir a las desanimadas tropas británicas. En octubre, Howe reemplazó a Gage como comandante de las tropas británicas en Estados Unidos y Clinton fue nombrado segundo al mando con el rango temporal de teniente general. La primavera siguiente, Howe envió a Clinton al sur para evaluar las oportunidades militares en las Carolinas. Mientras estaba fuera, las tropas estadounidenses colocaron armas en Dorchester Heights en Boston, lo que obligó a Howe a evacuar la ciudad. Después de algunas demoras, Clinton se encontró con una flota al mando del comodoro Sir Peter Parker, y los dos resolvieron atacar Charleston, Carolina del Sur. Al desembarcar las tropas de Clinton en Long Island, cerca de Charleston, Parker esperaba que la infantería pudiera ayudar a derrotar las defensas costeras mie...

    Utilizando las ideas de Clinton, que pedían un ataque a través de Guan Heights a través de Jamaica Pass, Howe flanqueó a los estadounidenses y llevó al ejército a la victoria en la Batalla de Long Island.en agosto de 1776. Por sus contribuciones, fue ascendido formalmente a teniente general y nombrado Caballero de la Orden de Bath. A medida que aumentaban las tensiones entre Howe y Clinton debido a las constantes críticas de este último, el primero envió a su subordinado con 6.000 hombres para capturar Newport, Rhode Island en diciembre de 1776. Logrando esto, Clinton pidió permiso y regresó a Inglaterra en la primavera de 1777. Mientras estaba en Londres, presionó para comandar una fuerza que atacaría al sur desde Canadá ese verano, pero fue negado a favor de Burgoyne. Al regresar a Nueva York en junio de 1777, Clinton se quedó al mando de la ciudad mientras Howe navegaba hacia el sur para capturar Filadelfia. Al poseer una guarnición de sólo 7.000 hombres, Clinton temía un ataque...

    Al asumir el mando en Filadelfia, con el general de división Lord Charles Cornwalliscomo su segundo al mando, Clinton se vio inmediatamente debilitado por la necesidad de destacar a 5.000 hombres para el servicio en el Caribe contra los franceses. Clinton decidió abandonar Filadelfia para concentrarse en mantener Nueva York y dirigió al ejército a Nueva Jersey en junio. Realizando una retirada estratégica, libró una gran batalla con Washington en Monmouthel 28 de junio que resultó en un empate. Al llegar a Nueva York de manera segura, Clinton comenzó a diseñar planes para cambiar el enfoque de la guerra hacia el sur, donde creía que el apoyo de los leales sería mayor. Al enviar una fuerza a fines de ese año, sus hombres lograron capturar Savannah, Georgia. Después de esperar gran parte de 1779 para recibir refuerzos, Clinton finalmente pudo moverse contra Charlestona principios de 1780. Navegando hacia el sur con 8.700 hombres y una flota dirigida por el vicealmirante Mariot Arbuthn...

    Tras entregar oficialmente el mando a Carleton en mayo, Clinton se convirtió en el chivo expiatorio de la derrota británica en Estados Unidos. Al regresar a Inglaterra, escribió sus memorias en un intento por limpiar su reputación y reasumió su escaño en el Parlamento hasta 1784. Reelegido al Parlamento en 1790, con la ayuda de Newcastle, Clinton fue ascendido a general tres años más tarde. Al año siguiente fue nombrado gobernador de Gibraltar, pero murió en Gibraltar el 23 de diciembre de 1795, antes de asumir el cargo.

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