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  1. The Russian Empire was predominantly a rural society spread over vast spaces. In 1913, 80% of the people were peasants. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century.

  2. abarcó grandes zonas de los continentes europeo, asiático y americano, siendo el sucesor del zarato ruso. 3 la expresión « rusia imperial » designa el periodo cronológico de la historia rusa que comprende desde la conquista de los territorios que se encuentran entre el mar báltico y el océano pacífico, iniciada por pedro i, hasta la caída de …

  3. The Russian Empire (1721-1917), also called Imperial Russia, was a country in Europe as well as Asia. It started in 1721 when Peter I of Russia founded it. Before that, it was known as the Duchy of Moscow. It lasted until it was declared a republic in March 1917 after the Russian Revolution.

    • Imperial Russia
    • Peter The Great
    • Catherine I and Peter II
    • Anna I
    • Elizabeth
    • Peter III
    • Russian Imperial Expansion and Maturation
    • Napoleonic Wars
    • 1815–1856
    • History and Service

    Historians have long marked the importance of Peter the Great's reign in Russian history. Peter came of age in a vast but technologically and socially backward country. Upon taking control of Russia in 1682, the tsar energetically redressed every aspect of Russian government, society, and military to more closely match its western neighbors. He fou...

    Early years and accession to the throne

    Peter the Great was born on June 9, 1672, to Tsar Alexis I and his second wife Natalia Naryshkina. The tsar had more than 14 children between the two marriages, but only three of the males, Feodor and Ivan by his first marriage and Peter by his second, survived into adulthood. Peter was considerably more healthy then his half-brothers, both of which had serious physical disabilities. Peter's father died in 1676, and Feodor, the late ruler's oldest son, was proclaimed tsar. When Feodor, in tur...

    Early rule and military reforms

    Peter personally studied soldiers and sailors from the bottom up, serving in the rank and file before promoting himself into the officer corps. Thus, Peter did not become a full general until after his victory at Poltava in 1709, and did not become full admiral until the conclusion of the Great Northern War more than a decade later. As early as 1694, he established a dockyard in Archangel and built an entire ship by himself. Russia suffered from an acute lack of expertise, a problem Peter mit...

    Siege of Azov, the Grand Embassy, and the Streltsy rebellion

    In 1695, Peter conducted his first major operation with his fledgling military. Having assumed control in 1694, Peter inherited the Holy League's war with Turkey. Under Ottoman power, Turkey controlled the area of the Crimean Tatars at the mouth of the Sea of Azov. The Turks and the Russian had been in on-and-off wars since 1568, vying to control the area around the Black Sea. Previous attempts to take the Crimea directly had failed, so Peter opted to lay siege to Turkish-controlled fortress...

    Peter's death left no clear candidate for succession to the throne. His son, Aleksei, was a shy, bookish man with little interest in the throne, as well as a constant target for revolts aimed at undermining Peter's rule. Alexei had renounced his interest in the throne in 1714, an action that made Peter furious; Aleksei was captured and tortured, an...

    The next leading candidate to the throne, as chosen by the Privy Council, was Anna Ivanovna, who was the daughter of Peter's late brother Ivan V. The primary reason for their choice was her political weakness as a woman and widow, something that the Council moved aggressively to take advantage of; they declared that they would approve her crowning ...

    Anna I died in autumn 1740. Shortly before her death, she had appointed her infant grandnephew, son of her niece, Princess of Mecklenburg, Ivan VI, as tsar, and nominated her old favorite Biron as the regent. The gesture did not save Biron from the many enemies he had made over the course of Anna's rule, and he was exiled to Siberia within three we...

    Peter III had a short and unpopular reign. Although he was a grandson of Peter the Great, his father was the duke of Holstein-Gottorp, so Peter III was raised in a German Lutheran environment. Russians therefore considered him a foreigner. Making no secret of his contempt for all things Russian, Peter created deep resentment by forcing Prussian mil...

    Catherine II's reign featured imperial expansion, which brought the empire huge new territories in the south and west; and internal consolidation. Following the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War with the Ottoman Empire in 1768, the parties agreed to the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji in 1774. By that treaty, Russia acquired an outlet to the Black Sea, a...

    As a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Paul became an adamant opponent of France, and Russia joined Britain and Austria in a war against France. Paul's support for the ideals of the Knights Hospitaller (and his acceptance of the position of Grand Master) alienated many members of h...

    Decembrists' Revolt

    At the same time, Russia continued its expansion. The Congress of Vienna created the Kingdom of Poland (Russian Poland), to which Alexander granted a constitution. Thus, Alexander I became the constitutional monarch of Poland while remaining the autocratic tsar of Russia. He was also the limited monarch of Finland, which had been annexed in 1809 and awarded autonomous status. In 1813 Russia gained territory in the Baky area of the Caucasus at the expense of Persia. By the early nineteenth cen...

    Weakness of the army

    Tsar Nicholas I(reigned 1825–1855) lavished attention on his very large army; with a population of 60–70 million people, the army included a million men. They had outdated equipment and tactics, but the tsar, who dressed like a soldier and surrounded himself with officers, gloried in the victory over Napoleon in 1812 and took enormous pride in its smartness on parade. The cavalry horses, for example, were only trained in parade formations, and did poorly in battle. The glitter and braid maske...

    Crimean War

    See main article on Crimean War

    Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878

    See main article on Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

    Russo-Japanese War

    See main article on Russo-Japanese War The war between Russia and the Japanese Empire broke out on February 8, 1904 with a Japanese attack upon the Russian Far East Fleet stationed at Port Arthur. Plagued with logistical problems, outdated military equipment and incompetent Russian officers, Russian forces suffered numerous defeats in the course of the war, which ended in September 1905, in the aftermath of the destruction of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. Faced with growing int...

    • 862–1283
    • 1380–1698
    • 1482–c. 1700
    • c. 1550–1721
    • Overview
    • Russian involvement in the American Revolutionary War
    • 19th century
    • 1880–1918

    The relations between the Russian Empire and the United States of America predate the Soviet Union–United States relations and the modern Russia–United States relations. Relations between the two countries were established immediately after the US declared its independence.

    The relations between the two states are usually considered to have begun in 1776, when the United States of America declared its independence from the British Empire and became an independent state. Earlier contacts had occurred. In 1763 a Boston merchant had anchored his ship at the port of Kronstadt after a direct transatlantic voyage. Despite b...

    In 1801 Thomas Jefferson appointed Levett Harris as the first American consul-general to Russia. The Monroe Doctrine was partly aimed at Holy Alliance support of intervention in Latin America which Russia several times tried to get the United States to join, as well as the Ukase of 1821 banning non-Russian ships from the Northwest Coast. The Russo-...

    From 1880 to 1917, about 3.2 million immigrants arrived in the U.S. from the Russian Empire. Most were Jews or Poles; only 100,000 were ethnic Russians. There were many Volga German, or Russian German immigrants to the United States. Meanwhile large numbers of minorities-– especially Jews, Poles, and Lithuanians emigrated to the United States befor...

    • American Embassy, Saint Petersburg
  4. Two million Jews fled the Russian Empire between 1880 and 1920, with many going to the United Kingdom and United States. [37] In response, the United Kingdom introduced the Aliens Act 1905, which introduced immigration controls for the first time, a main objective being to reduce the influx of Eastern European Jews. [38]

  5. Reverted to version as of 04:06, 10 January 2022 (UTC) Romania was a sphere of influence of the Russian Empire, see the discussion of this file FIRST 06:22 11 ene 2022 541 × 541 (384 kB)