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Johann Tserclaes, conde de Tilly (en neerlandés: Johan 't Serclaes; Castillo de Tilly, Villers-la-Ville, Brabante Valón, 1559-Ingolstadt, 30 de abril de 1632), conocido como el monje con armadura, fue un maestre de campo español nacido en los Países Bajos Españoles que comandó las fuerzas hispano-imperiales durante la guerra de los Treinta Años.
Johann Tserclaes was born in February 1559 in Castle Tilly, Walloon Brabant, now in Belgium, then the Spanish Netherlands. Johann Tserclaes was born into a devoutly Roman Catholic Brabantine family; and, after having received a Jesuit education in Cologne, he joined the Spanish army at age fifteen and fought under Alessandro Farnese, Duke of ...
Juan Tserclaes, conde de Tilly (Nivelles, febrero de 1559 – Ingolstadt, 30 de abril de 1632), llamado El monje con armadura, fue comandante (Mariscal de campo) de las fuerzas católicas durante las primeras etapas de la guerra de los treinta años, durante la cual obtuvo una notable serie de victorias contra las tropas de los protestantes bohemios y daneses, solo para ser derrotado y ...
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Dutch language: Johan 't Serclaes ) (February 1559 – 30 April 1632), commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War. He had a string of important victories against the Protestants but was then defeated by forces led by the King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Along with Duke Albrecht von Wallenstein of Friedland and Mecklenburg, he was one of ...
18/11/2021 · Johann Tserclaes, count von Tilly, outstanding general who was the principal commander of the Catholic League in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War. Educated by Jesuits, Tilly gained military experience in the Spanish Army of Flanders fighting the Dutch. In 1594 he joined the army of Holy Roman
- Early Years
- Campaign in Bohemia
- Campaign in Germany
- Sack of Magdeburg
- Campaign Against The Swedish
- Fictional Appearances
- External Links
Johann Tserclaes was born in February 1559 in Castle Tilly, Walloon Brabant, now in Belgium, then the Spanish Netherlands. Johann Tserclaes was born into a Roman Catholic Brabantine family and after receiving a Jesuit education in Cologne, he joined the Spanish army at age fifteen and fought under Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza in his campaign against the Dutch forces rebelling in the Eighty Years' War and participated in the successful Siege of Antwerp (1584–1585) in 1585. After this he joined in the Holy Roman Empire’s campaign against the Ottoman Turks in Hungary and Transylvania as a mercenary in 1600 and through rapid promotion became a field marshal in only five years. When the Turkish Wars ended in 1606, he remained in the service of Rudolf II in Prague until he was appointed commander of the Catholic League forces by Bavaria under Maximilian I, Elector of Bavariain 1610.
As commander of the forces of the Catholic League he fought against the Bohemian rebels following the Defenestration of Prague, by which time he had trained his soldiers in the Spanish Tercio system, which featured musketeers supported by deep ranks of pikemen. A force of 25,000 soldiers, including troops of both the Catholic League and the Emperor scored an important victory against Christian of Anhalt and Count Thurn at the decisive Battle of White Mountainwest of Prague on 8 November 1620. Half of the enemy forces were killed or captured, while the Catholic League lost only 700 men. This victory was vital in crushing resistance to the emperor in Bohemia, as it allowed Prague to be captured several days later.
Next he turned west and marched through Germany, but was defeated at the Battle of Mingolsheim on 27 April 1622. He then joined with the Spanish general Duke Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, (not to be confused with the famous Spanish general of the same name from the Italian Wars in Italy at the end of the 15th century), and was victorious at the Battle of Wimpfen against George Fredrick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach on 6 May; this victory occurred after the enemies’ ammunition tumbrilwas hit by cannon fire and exploded. He was successful again at the Battle of Höchst on 20 June and was made a Count (Graf in German) for this victory. These three battles in two months allowed him to capture the city of Heidelberg following an eleven-week siege on 19 September. Christian the Younger of Brunswick, whom he had already defeated at Höchst, raised another army, but again lost to him at the Battle of Stadtlohnwhere 13,000 out of his army of 15,000 were lost, including fifty of his high-ranking o...
While Adolphus landed his army in Mecklenburg and was in Berlin, trying to make alliances with the leaders of Northern Germany, Johann Tserclaes laid siege to the city of Magdeburg on the Elbe, which promised to support Sweden. The siege began on 20 March 1631 and he put his subordinate Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheimin command while he campaigned elsewhere. After two months of laying siege, and after the fall of Frankfurt an der Oder to the Swedish, Pappenheim finally convinced Tilly, who had brought reinforcements, to storm the city on 20 May with 40,000 men under the personal command of Pappenheim. The assault was successful and the walls were breached, but the commanders supposedly lost control of their soldiers and a massacre of the populace ensued in which 25,000 of the 30,000 inhabitants of the city perished by sword and the fire which destroyed most of the city. The city, then among the major places in Germany and of the size of Cologne or Hamburg, never recovered from...
Following Magdeburg, Johann Tserclaes engaged Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld on 17 September 1631, near the city of Leipzig, which Tserclaes had reached by laying waste to Saxony. In the battle he was outmaneuvered by King Gustavus Adolphus and lost 13,000 soldiers in the hard-fought battle. The Swedes’ maneuvering and accurate, rapid artillery fire caused his troops to break and flee. He withdrew, and political rivalries prevented Wallenstein from coming to his aid, so he turned to defense. While attempting to prevent the Swedish from crossing into Bavaria over the Lech near the Rain am Lech, he was wounded by a cannonball early in the Battle of Rainand died of tetanus fifteen days later in Ingolstadt at the age of 73 on 30 April 1632. His tomb is in Altötting, Upper Bavaria. Gustavus sent his own personal physician to tend to his wounds which caused Tilly to tell him, "Your king is truly a noble knight."
A grandson of one of his brothers, Antonio Octavio Tserclaes de Tilly(1646–1715) was General of the Spanish Army. A sister, or daughter, Albertina, of this Prince Antonio Octavio, would be the first root for the Spanish ducal title, Dukes of Tserclaes, bestowed in July 1856 by Queen Isabella II of Spain to members of the Guzmán, Pérez de Guzmán, family, living in Jerezand Seville, Spain.Tilly is mentioned in Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children in the chapter in which his funeral is held and in which Mother Courage, referring to it, says her famous lines "I don't care...Tilly and the sack of Magdeburg are mentioned in the novels "The Hangman's Daughter" and "1632".Tilly is depicted in First Breitenfeld and in the Battle of Rain in the novel 1632.
Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly. Graf von Tilly (1559-1632) is considered to be one of the greatest generals of the Thirty Years' War. His career spanned almost sixty years, from entering the military as a 15-year-old cadet until his death from wounds suffered on the field of battle at the age of seventy-four.