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  1. John Churchill, I Duque de Marlborough, I Príncipe de Mindelheim, I Conde de Nellenburg, Príncipe del Sacro Imperio Romano, ( Devonshire, Inglaterra, 26 de mayo de 1650 - Windsor Lodge, 16 de junio de 1722 ), fue un hombre de armas y político inglés. Su vida abarca el reinado de cinco monarcas ingleses, entre mediados del siglo XVII y ...

    • John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough
    • Henrietta Godolphin
  2. Churchill, John. Duque de Marlborough (I), Duque de Churchill (I). Ashe (Devon, Reino Unido), 1650 – Windsor (Reino Unido), 1722. General inglés. Hijo de un escudero realista empobrecido, cursó estudios en la escuela de San Pablo de Londres y también se educó en la Corte de los Estuardo.

    • Early Life and Career
    • Early Service
    • William's General
    • War of The Spanish Succession
    • Later Years and Death
    • Legacy
    • Sources
    • Further Reading

    Churchill was the second but eldest-surviving son of Sir Winston Churchill (1620–1688) of Glanvilles Wootton, Dorset, and Elizabeth Drake, whose family came from Ash, in Devon. Winston served with the Royalist Army in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; he was heavily fined for doing so, forcing his family to live at Ash House with his mother-in-law. Only five of their children survived infancy: Arabella (1648–1730), who was the eldest; followed by John; George (1654–1710); and Charles (1654–1714). Another brother, Theobald, died in 1685. After the 1660 Restoration of Charles II, Winston became Member of parliament for Weymouth and from 1662 served as Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin. On returning to London in 1663, he was knighted and received a position at Whitehall, with John attending St Paul's School. The family fortune was made in 1665 when Arabella Churchill became maid of honour to Anne Hyde and began an affair with her husband, James, Duke of York. This lasted over...

    Crisis

    In November 1677, William of Orange married James' eldest daughter, Mary, and in March 1678, the Earl of Danby negotiated an Anglo-Dutch defensive alliance. Churchill was sent to the Hague to make arrangements for an expeditionary force, although English troops did not arrive in significant numbers until after the Peace of Nijmegenended the war on 10 August. James publicly confirmed his conversion to Catholicism in 1673 and as heir to the throne, this led to a political crisis that dominated...

    Rebellion

    Despite his Catholicism, James succeeded Charles as king in February 1685 with widespread support. Many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms but tolerance for his personal beliefs did not apply to Catholicism in general. His support collapsed when his policies appeared to threaten the primacy of the Church of Englandand created the very instability his supporters wished to avoid. This preference for stability led to the rapid defeat in Ju...

    Revolution

    Churchill emerged from the Sedgemoor campaign with great credit, but he was anxious not to be seen as sympathetic towards the King's growing religious ardour against the Protestant establishment. James II's promotion of Catholics in royal institutions – including the army – engendered first suspicion, and ultimately sedition in his mainly Protestant subjects; even members of his own family expressed alarm at the King's fanatic zeal for the Roman Catholic religion. When the queen gave birth to...

    As part of William III and Mary II's coronation honours, Churchill was created Earl of Marlborough on 9 April 1689 (O.S.); he was also sworn as a member of the Privy Council and made a Gentleman of the King's Bedchamber. His elevation, however, led to accusatory rumours from King James's supporters that Marlborough had disgracefully betrayed his erstwhile king for personal gain; William himself entertained reservations about the man who had deserted James. Marlborough's apologists, including his biographer and most notable descendant Winston Churchill, have been at pains to attribute patriotic, religious, and moral motives to his action; but in the words of David G. Chandler, it is difficult to absolve Marlborough of ruthlessness, ingratitude, intrigue and treachery against a man to whom he owed virtually everything in his life and career to date. Marlborough's first official act was to assist in the remodelling of the army – the power of confirming or purging officers and men gave...

    In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the single most important theme in European politics was the rivalry between the House of Habsburg and the House of Bourbon. In 1665, the infirm and childless Habsburg Charles II became the King of Spain. Spain was no longer the dominant global power it once was but remained a vast global confederation, with possessions in Italy, the Spanish Netherlands, the Philippines and large parts of the Americas. It proved remarkably resilient; when Charles died in 1700, it was largely intact and had even expanded in areas like the Pacific.Its possession could change the balance of power in favour of either France or Austria. Attempts to partition the Empire between the French and Austrian candidates or install an alternative from the Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty failed. When Charles died, he left his throne to Louis XIV's grandson who became Philip V of Spain on 16 November 1700. However, this was on condition Philip renounce his claim to the French...

    Return to favour

    Marlborough was welcomed and fêted by the people and courts of Europe, where he was not only respected as a great general but also as a prince of the Holy Roman Empire.Sarah joined him in February 1713, and was delighted when on reaching Frankfurt in the middle of May to see that the troops under Eugene's command paid her lord "all the respects as if he had been at his old post". Throughout his travels Marlborough remained in close contact with the Electoral court of Hanover, determined to en...

    Death

    The Duke's return to favour under the House of Hanover enabled him to preside over the defeat of the 1715 Jacobite rising from London (although it was his former assistant, Cadogan, who directed the operations). But his health was fading, and on 28 May 1716 (O.S.), shortly after the death of his daughter Anne, Countess of Sunderland, he suffered a paralytic stroke at Holywell House. This was followed by another, more severe stroke in November, this time at a house on the Blenheim estate. The...

    Assessment

    Historian John H. Lavalle argues that: Marlborough was equally adept at both battle and siege. Robert Parker writes: To military historians David Chandler and Richard Holmes, Marlborough is the greatest British commander in history, an assessment that is shared by others, including the Duke of Wellington who could "conceive nothing greater than Marlborough at the head of an English army". However, the 19th century Whig historian, Thomas Macaulay, denigrates Marlborough throughout the pages of...

    Captain-General

    On the grand strategic level Marlborough had a rare grasp of the broad issues involved, and was able from the start of the Spanish Succession war to see the conflict in its entirety. He was one of the few influences working towards genuine unity within the Grand Alliance, but the extension of the war aims to include the replacement of Philip V as King of Spain was a fatal mistake. Marlborough stands accused – possibly for political and diplomatic reasons – of not pressing his private doubts a...

    Barnett, Correlli (1999). Marlborough. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1-84022-200-X.
    Chandler, David (1973). Marlborough as Military Commander (1989 ed.). Spellmount Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0946771127.
    —— (1998). A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1-85326-694-9.
    Chesterton, G.K. (1917). A Short History of England. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 0-554-10672-8.
  3. John Churchill, duque de Marlborough General inglés Nació el 26 de mayo de 1650 en Devonshire (Gran Bretaña). Entre 1672 y 1673 sirvió con distinción a las órdenes del duque de York algún tiempo después Jacobo II, rey de Inglaterra. En el año 1682, siendo Churchill coronel, pasó a formar parte de la nobleza.

  4. John Churchill, 1er Duque de Marlborough KG PC (26 de mayo de 1650 - 16 de junio de 1722) fue un importante soldado y estadista inglés. Vivió las reglas de cinco monarcas a finales del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII.

  5. John Churchill de Marlborough (John Churchill, duque de Marlborough; Ashe, Devonshire, 1650 - Cranbourn Lodge, Windsor, 1722) Militar y político inglés. Tras haber servido a Jacobo II , que le colmó de honores en cuanto accedió al trono, John Churchill fue uno de los primeros en abandonarle y apoyar la causa del protestante Guillermo III en 1688.

  6. Churchill, John. Duque de Marlborough (1650-1722). Duque de Marlborough. General y político británico, nacido el 26 de mayo de 1650 en Ashe, condado de Devonshire ...

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