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  1. The Electoral Palatinate or the Palatinate, officially the Electorate of the Palatinate, was a country that was part of the Holy Roman Empire. Counts palatine of the Rhine served as prince-electors from "time immemorial," were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356. It stretched from the left bank of the Upper Rhine, from the Hunsrück mountain range in what is today the Palatinate region in the German federal state of ...

    • Electorate
    • German
    • Overview
    • Counts Palatine of Lotharingia, 915–1085
    • Counts Palatine of the Rhine, 1085–1356

    The Elector of the Palatinate (German: Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803.

    The Palatinate emerged from the County Palatine of Lotharingia, which came into existence in the 10th century. Wigeric of Lotharingia, count of the Bidgau (c. 915/916–922) Godfrey, count of the Jülichgau (c. 940) House of Ezzonen During the 11th century, the Palatinate was dominated by the Ezzonian dynasty, who governed several counties on both banks of the Rhine. These territories were centered around Cologne-Bonn, but extended south to the Mosel and Nahe Rivers. The southernmost point ...

    From about 1085/1086, after the death of the last Ezzonian palatine count, Herman II of Lotharingia, the Palatinate lost its military importance in Lotharingia. The territorial authority of the count palatine was reduced to his counties along the Rhine, from then on called County Palatine of the Rhine. Heinrich II of Laach, 1085–95 Sigfried of Ballenstadt, 1095–1113 Gottfried of Kalw, 1113–29 William of Ballenstedt, 1129–39 Henry IV Jasomirgott, 1139–42 Hermann III of Stahleck ...

    • Senior Line 1356–1559
    • Second Electorate 1648-1685
    • Neuburg Line 1685-1742
    • Sulzbach Line 1742-1799
    • Sulzbach Line 1777-1799
    • Zweibrücken Line 1799–1803
    Rupert I (1309 –1390) Elector Palatine of the Rhine
    Rupert II (1325 –1398) Elector Palatine of the Rhine

    Frederick III of Simmern, the Pious (1515 – 1576) Count Palatine of Simmern from 1557 and Elector Palatine of the Rhine

    1. Frederick III of Simmern, the Pious (1515 – 1576) Count Palatine of Simmern from 1557 and Elector Palatine of the Rhine from 1559.Son of John II (1492–1557) Count Palatine of Simmern. See Palatine Cadets.Married firstly Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1519 – 1567) daughter of Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and secondly Amalia of Neuenahr (1539 – 1602) daughter of Gumprecht of Neuenahr.

    Louis VI (1539 –1583) Elector Palatine of the Rhine

    1. Louis VI (1539 –1583) Elector Palatine of the Rhine.Married firstly Elisabeth of Hesse (1539 – 1582) daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse and secondly Countess Anne of Ostfriesland (1562 – 1621) daughter of Edzard II, Count of East Frisia.

    Frederick IV (1574 – 1610) Elector Palatine of the Rhine

    1. Frederick IV (1574 – 1610) Elector Palatine of the Rhine. Married Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (1576 – 1644) daughter of William I of Nassau, Prince of Orange.

    Philip William of Neuburg (1615 –1690) Elector Palatine

    1. Philip William of Neuburg (1615 –1690) Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690. Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Grand Master of the Order of St Hubert. Son of Wolfgang Wilhelm (1614–53)Count Palatine of Neuburg. See Palatine Cadets.Married firstly Princess Anna Catherine Constance Vasa (1619 – 1651) daughter of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Sweden and secondly Landgravine Elisa...

    Charles III Philip (1661 –1742) Elector Palatine

    1. Charles III Philip (1661 –1742) Elector Palatine, Count of Palatinate-Neuburg, and Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1716 to 1742. Until 1728 Charles III Philip was also Count of Megen. Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Grand Master of the Order of St Hubert. Married firstly Princess Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł (1667 – 1695) daughter of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł, secondly Princess Teresa Katharina Lubomirska (1685 – 1712) daughter of Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski and thirdly morganatical...

    Charles Theodore (1724 –1799) Elector Palatine and Elector of Bavaria

    1. Charles Theodore (1724 –1799) Count Palatine of Sulzbach from 1733, Elector Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777. Grand Master of the Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception. Grand Master of the Order of St Hubert. Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Son of John Christian (1700 –1733) Count Palatine of Sulzbach. See Palatine Cadets. Married firstly Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzba...

    Charles Theodore (1724 –1799) Elector Palatine and Elector of Bavaria

    1. Charles Theodore (1724 –1799) Count Palatine of Sulzbach from 1733, Elector Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777.Married firstly Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach (1721 – 1794) daughter of Joseph Charles, Hereditary Prince of Sulzbach and secondly Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este (1776 – 1848) Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria-Este. Ancestor of the morganatic House of Bretzenheim.

    Maximilian IV Joseph (1756 –1825) Elector Palatine and Elector of Bavaria

    1. Maximilian I (1756 –1825) Count Palatine of Birkenfeld and Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1805, King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I) from 1806 to 1825. Grand Master of the Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception. Grand Master of the Order of St Hubert. Grand Master of the Order of St Michael. Son of Charles II August Christian (1746 –1795) Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld...

  2. Charles Louis, Elector Palatine (German: Karl I. Ludwig; 22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680), was the second son of Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia and sister of Charles I of England.

    • Overview
    • Early life and background
    • Succession
    • Marriages
    • Art collections

    Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Elector Palatine, Duke of Neuburg, Duke of Jülich and Berg, and Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham. From 1697 onwards Johann Wilhelm was also Count of Megen.

    He was the son of Count Palatine Philip William of Neuburg and Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt and was born in Düsseldorf, where he resided, rather than in Heidelberg, which had been largely destroyed by French troops during the Nine Years' War. He was educated by the Jesuits and in 1674 he made a grand tour to Italy. Equestrian portrait of Johann Wilhelm by Anthoni Schoonjans, 1702 His brother was Franz Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg, his sisters were married to Holy Roman Emperor ...

    As a gift to Johann Wilhelm and his new bride, Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, Johann Wilhelm's father ceded to them the Duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1679.

    On 25 October 1678, in Wiener Neustadt, Johann Wilhelm married Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria. She was a daughter of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and his third wife, Eleanor of Mantua. The wedding ceremony was performed by Archbishop Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch. The couple settled in Düsseldorf, where they led an elaborate royal household. During their marriage, Maria Anna Josepha gave birth to two children, but neither survived infancy: 1. A son 2. A son Maria Anna ...

    He was more popular in Jülich-Berg, where he erected impressive buildings such as the Schloss Bensberg and led a lavish court which gave work to many artists and artisans, including the court painters Johannes Spilberg, his daughter Adriana, her later husband Eglon van der Neer, Adriaen van der Werff, Jan Frans van Douven, Herman van der Mijn, Jan van Nickelen, his daughter Jacoba Maria van Nickelen, her husband Willem Troost, Anthoni Schoonjans, Rachel Ruysch, Godfried Schalcken, and Jan ...

  3. Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine ( Neuburg, 4 November 1661 – Mannheim, 31 December 1742) was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach. He was Elector Palatine, Count of Palatinate-Neuburg, and Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1716 to 1742. Until 1728 Charles III Philip was also Count of Megen .

  4. Mechtild of Nassau. Rupert I "the Red", Elector Palatine ( German: Ruprecht der Rote; 9 June 1309, Wolfratshausen – 16 February 1390, Neustadt an der Weinstraße) was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390. He was the son of Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria and Mechtild of Nassau, the ...

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