Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His assassination in Sarajevo is considered the most immediate cause of World War I .
The Archduchy of Austria (German: Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna , the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery.
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, which was below that of Emperor and King, roughly equal to Grand Duke, but above that of a Prince and Duke. The territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918. The current head of the House of Habsburg is Karl von Habsburg.
The English word is first recorded in 1530, derived from Middle French archeduc, a 15th-century derivation from Medieval Latin archidux, from Latin archi- meaning "authority" or "primary" and dux "duke". "Archduke" is a title distinct from "Grand Duke", a later monarchic title borne by the rulers of other European countries.
The Latin title archidux is first attested in reference to Bruno the Great, who ruled simultaneously as Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lotharingia in the 10th century, in the work of his biographer Ruotger. In Ruotger, the title served as an honorific denoting Bruno's unusual position rather than a formal office. The title was not used systematically until the 14th century, when the title "Archduke of Austria" was invented in the forged Privilegium Maius by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, called R
From the 16th century onward, "Archduke" and its female form, "Archduchess", came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg. Upon extinction of the male line of the Habsburgs and the marriage of their heiress, the Holy Roman Empress-consort Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Archduchess of Austria, to Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor, their descendants formed the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usa
The insignia of the Archduke of Lower and Upper Austria was the archducal hat, a coronet which is kept in Klosterneuburg Monastery.
- Early Life
- Military Career
- Heir to The Throne
- Marriage and Family
- Trip to Sarajevo
Franz Ferdinand was born Franz Ferdinand Karl Ludwig Joseph on December 18, 1863, in Graz, Austria. He was the eldest son of Archduke Carl Ludwig and the nephew of Emperor Franz Josef. He was educated by private tutors throughout his youth.
Ferdinand was destined to join the Austro-Hungarian army and quickly rose through the ranks. He was promoted five times until he was made a major general in 1896. He had served in both Pragueand Hungary. It was no surprise when later, as heir to the throne, he was appointed to be the inspector general of the Austro-Hungarian army. It was while serving in this capacity that he would eventually be assassinated. As a leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ferdinand worked to preserve the power of the Habsburg dynasty. The empire was made up of multiple ethnic groups, and for some of them, Ferdinand supported greater freedom for self-determination. He argued for better treatment of Serbia in particular, fearing that suffering among the Slavs might lead to conflict in the region. At the same time, Ferdinand opposed outright nationalist movements that might threaten to undermine the empire. On political matters, it was reported that Ferdinand frequently disagreed with Emperor Franz Joseph...
In 1889, the son of Emperor Franz Josef, Crown Prince Rudolf, committed suicide. Franz Ferdinand's father Karl Ludwig became next in line to the throne. Upon Karl Ludwig's death in 1896, Franz Ferdinand became the heir apparent to the throne. As a result, he took on new responsibilities and was trained to eventually become the emperor.
Ferdinand first met Countess Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Chotek von Chotkova und Wognin in 1894 and soon fell in love with her. However, she was not considered a suitable spouse since she was not a member of the House of Habsburg. It took a few years and the intervention of other heads of state before Emperor Franz Josef would agree to the marriage in 1899. Their marriage was only allowed on the condition that Sophie would agree to not allow any of her husband's titles, privileges, or inherited property to pass to either her or her children. This is known as a morganatic marriage. Together, the couple had three children: Princess Sophie of Hohenberg; Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg; and Prince Ernst of Hohenberg. In 1909, Sophie was given the title Duchess of Hohenberg, though her royal privileges were still limited.
In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was invited to Sarajevoto inspect the troops by General Oskar Potiorek, the governor of Bosnia-Herzegovina, one of the Austrian provinces. Part of the appeal of the trip was that his wife, Sophie, would be not only welcomed but also allowed to ride in the same car with him. This was otherwise not allowed due to the rules of their marriage. The couple arrived in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. Unbeknownst to Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, a Serbian revolutionary group called the Black Hand had planned to assassinate the archduke on his trip to Sarajevo. At 10:10 a.m. on June 28, 1914, on the way from the train station to City Hall, a grenade was launched at them by a member of the Black Hand. However, the driver saw something racing through the air and sped up, causing the grenade to hit the car behind them, seriously wounding two occupants.
After meeting with Potiorek at City Hall, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie decided to visit those wounded from the grenade in the hospital. However, their driver made a wrong turn and drove right past a Black Hand conspirator named Gavrilo Princip. When the driver slowly backed up out of the street, Princip pulled a gun and fired several shots into the car, hitting Sophie in the stomach and Franz Ferdinand in the neck. They both died before they could be taken to the hospital. Ferdinand was buried alongside his wife in Artstetten Castle, a royal property in Austria. The car in which they were killed is on display at the Museum of Military History in Vienna, Austria, along with Ferdinand's bloodied uniform.
The Black Hand attacked Franz Ferdinand as a call for independence for Serbians who lived in Bosnia, part of former Yugoslavia. When Austro-Hungary retaliated against Serbia, Russia—which was then allied with Serbia—joined the war against Austria-Hungary. This started a series of conflicts that eventually led to World War I. Germany declared war on Russia, and France was then drawn in against Germany and Austro-Hungary. When Germany attacked France through Belgium, Britain was brought into the war as well. Japan entered the war on Germany's side. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies.Brook-Shepherd, Gordon. "Archduke of Sarajevo: the Romance and Tragedy of Franz Ferdinand of Austria." Little, Brown, 1984.Clark, Christopher M. "The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914." Harper Perennial, 2014.King, Greg, and Sue Woolmans. "The Assassination of the Archduke: Sarajevo 1914 and the Romance That Changed the World." St. Martin's Griffin, 2014.
- History Expert
- Marriage and children
Charles II Francis of Austria was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.
A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Elizabeth I of England. Emperor Ferdinand I expected Elizabeth to promise in the proposed marriage treaty that Charles, as her widower, would succeed her if she died childless. The negotiations dragged on until ...
In Vienna on 26 August 1571 Charles married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria. They had fifteen children
Franz Ferdinand, archduke of Austria-Este, German Franz Ferdinand, Erzherzog von Österreich-Este, also called Francis Ferdinand, (born December 18, 1863, Graz, Austria—died June 28, 1914, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary [now in Bosnia and Herzogovina]), Austrian archduke whose assassination (1914) was the immediate cause of World War I.