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  1. One notable critique of social science is found in Peter Winch's Wittgensteinian text The Idea of Social Science and its Relation to Philosophy (1958). Michel Foucault provides a potent critique in his archaeology of the human sciences , though Habermas and Richard Rorty have both argued that Foucault merely replaces one such system of thought with another.

  2. Introduction of the term. In 1962, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend both independently introduced the idea of incommensurability to the philosophy of science. In both cases, the concept came from mathematics; in its original sense, it is defined as the absence of a common unit of measurement that would allow a direct and exact measurement of two variables, such as the prediction of the diagonal ...

  3. The feminist philosophy of science was born out of feminist science studies in the 1960s, when female primatologists began to reevaluate stereotypes of male and female behavior in animals. However, feminist reform born from this branch of philosophy did not receive formal backing from the federal government until the late 1980s, after which its prominence as a philosophy of science grew.

  4. The perennial philosophy (Latin: philosophia perennis), also referred to as perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in philosophy and spirituality that views all of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.

  5. Contemporary philosophy. The Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer has expressed views which have led him to be described as a "modern gadfly". See also. Concern troll – a false flag pseudonym created by a user whose actual point of view is opposed to the one that the troll claims to hold

  6. Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline.The term was coined by French philosopher Voltaire.. In contemporary philosophy a distinction has developed between speculative philosophy of history and critical philosophy of history, now referred to as analytic.

  7. The philosophy of technology is a sub-field of philosophy that studies the nature of technology and its social effects. Philosophical discussion of questions relating to technology (or its Greek ancestor techne ) dates back to the very dawn of Western philosophy . [1]