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  1. Plato , (born 428/427, Athens, Greece—died 348/347 bc, Athens), Greek philosopher, who with his teacher Socrates and his student Aristotle laid the philosophical foundations of Western culture. His family was highly distinguished; his father claimed descent from the last king of Athens, and his mother was related to Critias and Charmides, extremist leaders of the oligarchic terror of 404.

  2. It is this belief in absolute values rooted in an eternal world that distinguishes Platonism from the philosophies of Plato’s immediate predecessors and successors and from later philosophies inspired by them—from the immanentist naturalism of most of the pre-Socratics (who interpreted the world monistically in terms of nature as such), from the relativism of the Sophists, and from the correction of Platonism in a this-worldly direction carried out by Plato’s greatest pupil, Aristotle.

    • What Is Mathematical Platonism?
    • The Fregean Argument For Existence
    • Objections to Mathematical Platonism
    • Between Object Realism and Mathematical Platonism

    Mathematical platonism can be defined as the conjunction of thefollowing three theses: Some representative definitions of ‘mathematicalplatonism’ are listed in the supplement Some Definitions of Platonism and document that the above definition is fairly standard. Platonism in general (as opposed to platonism about mathematicsspecifically) is any vi...

    We now describe a template of an argument for the existence ofmathematical objects. Since the first philosopher who developed anargument of this general form was Frege, it will be referred to asthe Fregean argument. But the template is general andabstracts away from most specific aspects of Frege’s own defense of theexistence of mathematical object...

    A variety of objections to mathematical platonism have beendeveloped. Here are the most important ones.

    Object realism says there exist abstract mathematical objects,whereas platonism adds Independence, which says that mathematicalobjects are independent of intelligent agents and their language,thought, and practices. This final sectionsurveys some lightweight forms of object realism that stop short of full-fledged platonism.

  3. 4 de ene. de 2022 · But the factual, religious, and moral ideas of the Christian faith long predate Plato, show no evidence of being influenced by Plato, and are not dependent on him or his writings. In short, Platonism indirectly affected Christianity by providing two things: a common style of logical discourse and an opposing worldview to which Christianity could be presented as an alternative.

    • What Is Platonism?
    • A Taxonomy of Positions
    • The One Over Many Argument
    • The Singular Term Argument
    • The Epistemological Argument Against Platonism

    Platonism is the view that there exist abstract (that is, non-spatial,non-temporal) objects (see the entry on abstract objects). Because abstract objects are wholly non-spatiotemporal, it followsthat they are also entirely non-physical (they do not exist in thephysical world and are not made of physical stuff) and non-mental(they are not minds or i...

    There are not very many alternatives to platonism. One can reject theexistence of things like numbers and universals altogether. Or one canmaintain that there do exist such things as numbers and universals,and instead of saying that they are abstract objects, one can say thatthey are mental objects of some sort (usually, the claim is that theyare i...

    There are two mainstream arguments for platonism. The first, whichgoes back to Plato, is an argument for the existence of properties andrelations only; this is the One Over Many argument. Thesecond is also present in some sense in the works of Plato (at leaston some readings of those works), but its first modern formulation,and certainly the first ...

    The general argument strategy here has roots in the work of Plato, butits first clear formulation was given by Frege (1884, 1892,1893–1903, and 1919). We begin with a general formulation of theargument: 1. If a simple sentence (i.e., a sentence of the form‘a is F’, or ‘a isR-related to b’, or…) is literallytrue, then the objects that its singular t...

    Over the years, anti-platonist philosophers have presented a number ofarguments against platonism. One of these arguments stands out as thestrongest, namely, the epistemological argument. This argument goesall the way back to Plato, but it has received renewed interest since1973, when Paul Benacerraf presented a version of the argument. Mostof the ...

  4. 15 de jun. de 2000 · Plato and Platonism reviews the nature and limits of Platonic interpretation. The book begins with a discussion of Plato's conception of what a genuine rational discipline (a 'techne') should be. The author shows how the recollection theory of understanding, the Forms as ultimate explanatory factors, and Plato's ethics of the right human ideal, all grow out of conditions that are essential to the genuine 'technai'.

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