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  1. The Kingdom of Bavaria (German: Königreich Bayern; Bavarian: Kinereich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federated state of the new empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of ...

  2. The Kingdom of Bavaria ( German: Königreich Bayern; Bavarian: Kenigreich Bayern) was a historic German state that existed from 1805–1918. It became the Free State of Bavaria in 1918 and today since 1945 it is now called Bavaria . This short article about history can be made longer.

  3. › wiki › BavariaBavaria - Wikipedia

    With an area of 70,550.19 km 2 (27,239.58 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area, comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With over 13 million inhabitants, it is second in population only to North Rhine-Westphalia, but due to its large size its population density is below the German average.

    • 70,550.19 km² (27,239.58 sq mi)
    • Germany
    • Early Settlements and Roman Raetia
    • Migrations and Early Medieval Period
    • The Stem Duchy of Bavaria
    • Under The Wittelsbach Dynasty
    • Reunited Duchy
    • Electorate of Bavaria
    • Kingdom of Bavaria
    • Modern Times
    • See Also
    • Bibliography

    There have been numerous palaeolithic discoveries in Bavaria. The earliest known inhabitants that are mentioned in written sources were the Celts, participating in the widespread La Tène culture, whom the Romans subdued just before the commencement of the Christian era, founding colonies among them and including their land in the provinces of Raeti...

    During the 5th century, the Romans in Noricum and Raetia, south of the Danube, came under increasing pressure from people north of the Danube. This area had become inhabited by Suebian groups from further north and was considered by Romans to be part of Germania. The etymological origins of the name "Bavarian" (Latin Baiovarii) are from the north o...

    Bavaria and the Agilolfings under Frankish overlordship

    The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle. The Franks regarded this border area as a buffer zone against peoples to the east, such as the Avars and the Slavs, and as a source of manpower for the army. Sometime around 550 AD they put it under the administration of a duke - possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families - who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke known wa...


    Christianity had lingered in Bavaria from Roman times, but a new era set in when Bishop Rupert of Worms came to the county at the invitation of Duke Theodo I in 696. He founded several monasteries, as did Bishop Emmeran of Poitiers, with the result that before long, most of the people professed Christianity and relations commenced between Bavaria and Rome. The 8th century witnessed indeed a heathen reaction, but the arrival of Saint Boniface in Bavaria during c. 734 AD checked apostasy.[citat...

    The Duchy during the Carolingian period

    The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century intertwines with that of the Carolingian empire. Bavaria, given during the partition of 817 AD to the king of the East Franks, Louis the German, formed a part of the larger territories confirmed to him in 843 AD by the Treaty of Verdun. Louis made Regensburg the center of his government and actively developed Bavaria, providing for its security by numerous campaigns against the Slavs. When he divided his possessions in 865 AD, it passed to his el...

    A new era began when, in consequence of Henry the Lion being placed under an imperial ban in 1180 AD, Emperor Frederick I awarded the duchy to Otto, a member of the old Bavarian family of Wittelsbach and a descendant of the counts of Scheyern. The Wittelsbach dynasty ruled Bavaria without interruption until 1918 AD. The Electorate of the Palatinate...

    Renaissance and Counter-Reformation

    In spite of the decree of 1506, William IV was compelled to grant a share in the government in 1516 to his brother Louis X, an arrangement which lasted until the death of Louis in 1545. William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy of opposition to the Habsburgs until in 1534 he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand, the king of Hungary and Bohemia. This link strengthened in 1546, when the emperor Charles V obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by pro...

    Thirty Years' War

    Maximilian I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change. The finances and the judicial system were reorganized, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority. The result was unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War; during the earlier years of which he was so successfu...


    The international position won by Maximilian I adds to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries were most dubious. Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria(1651–1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, tried to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries. In 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since 1612. His good wo...

    Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods

    In 1792, French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795 the French, under Moreau, invaded Bavaria itself and advanced to Munich where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals, and laid siege to Ingolstadt. Charles Theodore, who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony and abandoned a regency whose members signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution (7 September 1796). Bet...

    Constitution and Revolution

    Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to Austria the northern Tyrol and Vorarlberg; during the Congress of Vienna it was decided that she was to add to these the greater part of Salzburg and the Innviertel and Hausruck[de]. She received as compensation, besides Würzburg and Aschaffenburg, the Palatinate (region) on the left bank of the Rhine and certain districts of Hesse-Darmstadt and of the former Abbacy of Fulda. But with the collapse of France, the old fears and...

    German Empire

    The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question. The South German Confederation, contemplated by the 6th article of the Treaty of Prague, never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria (as of the other southern states) with...

    Bavaria during the Weimar Republic

    Republican institutions replaced royal ones in Bavaria during the upheavals of November 1918. Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declared Bavaria to be a free state on 8 November 1918. Eisner was assassinated on 21 February 1919 ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short lived Bavarian Socialist Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik) being proclaimed from 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notabl...

    Bavaria during Nazi Germany

    With the rise of the Nazis to power in 1933, the Bavarian parliament was dissolved without new elections. Instead, the seats were allocated according to the results in the national election of March 1933, giving the Nazis and its coalition partner, the DNVP, a narrow two-seat majority due to the fact that the seats won by the KPD were declared void. With this controlling power, the NSDAP was declared the only legal party and all other parties in Germany and Bavaria were dissolved. In 1934, th...

    Bavaria during the Federal Republic of Germany

    Following the end of World War II, Bavaria was occupied for a while by US forces, who reestablished the state on 19 September 1945, and during the Cold War it was part of West Germany. In 1946 Bavaria lost its district on the Rhine, the Palatinate. The destruction caused by aerial bombings during the war, in addition to the fact that Bavaria had to take in over two million refugees from the parts of Germany now under Sovietoccupation, caused major problems for the authorities. The Bavarian Pa...

    Bischel, Matthias (2019). "An English-Language Bibliography on Bavarian History: Academic Publications of the Last Fifty Years". Bavarian Studies in History and Culture.
    Reindel, K. (1981). Die Bajuwaren. Quellen, Hypothesen, Tatsachen. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters37:451-473.
    Schutz, H. (2000). The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400-750New York: Peter Lang.
    Strayer, J.(Ed.) (1983) Dictionary of the Middle Ages; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  4. King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished. It was the second time Bavaria was a kingdom, almost a thousand years after the short-lived Carolingian kingdom of Bavaria.

    Start Term
    End Term
    Elector of the Palatinate King of ...
    King of Bavaria
    King of Bavaria
    King of Bavaria