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  1. 16 de septiembre. El 16 de septiembre es el 259.º (ducentésimo quincuagésimo noveno) día del año el 260.º (ducentésimo sexagésimo) en los años bisiestos en el calendario gregoriano. Quedan 106 días para finalizar el año.

  2. 2. ] La guerra por la independencia mexicana inició el día 16 de septiembre de 1810, hasta la entrada del Ejército Trigarante a la Ciudad de México, el día 27 de septiembre de 1821. El movimiento independentista mexicano tiene como marco la Ilustración y las revoluciones liberales de la última parte del siglo XVIII.

  3. 16 de Septiembre is a studio album released by American performer Little Joe and his band La Familia, named after the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. It was released in 1991 by Sony Music Entertainment. The album peaked at number 14 in the Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart and earned Little Joe the Grammy Award for Best ...

    • 1991
    • Sony
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › September_16September 16 - Wikipedia

    • Events
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    • Holidays and Observances
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    Pre-1600

    1. 681 – Pope Honorius I is posthumously excommunicated by the Sixth Ecumenical Council. 2. 1400 – Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Walesby his followers.

    1601–1900

    1. 1620 – A determined band of 35 religious dissenters - Pilgrims set sail for Virginia from Plymouth, England in the Mayflower, jubilant at the prospect of practicing their unorthodox brand of worship in the New World. 2. 1701 – James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender", becomes the Jacobite claimantto the thrones of England and Scotland. 3. 1732 – In Campo Maior, Portugal, a storm hits the Armory and a violent explosion ensues, killing two-thirds of its inhabitants....

    1901–present

    1. 1908 – The General Motors Corporationis founded. 2. 1914 – World War I: The Siege of Przemyśl(present-day Poland) begins. 3. 1920 – The Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 and injuring 400. 4. 1940 – World War II: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani. 5. 1943 – World War II: The German Tenth Army reports that it can no longer contain the Allied bridgehead around Salerno. 6. 1945 – World War II: The Japanese...

    Pre-1600

    1. AD 16 – Julia Drusilla, Roman daughter of Germanicus(d. 38) 2. 508 – Yuan Di, emperor of the Liang dynasty(d. 555) 3. 1295 – Elizabeth de Clare, English noblewoman (d. 1360) 4. 1386 – Henry V of England(d. 1422) 5. 1462 – Pietro Pomponazzi, Italian philosopher (d. 1525) 6. 1507 – Jiajing Emperorof China (d. 1567) 7. 1541 – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, English nobleman (d. 1576) 8. 1557 – Jacques Mauduit, French composer (d. 1627)

    1601–1900

    1. 1615 – Heinrich Bach, German organist and composer (d. 1692) 2. 1625 – Gregorio Barbarigo, Roman Catholic saint (d. 1697) 3. 1651 – Engelbert Kaempfer, German physician and botanist (d. 1716) 4. 1666 – Antoine Parent, French mathematician and theorist (d. 1716) 5. 1678 – Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English philosopher and politician, Secretary of State for the Southern Department(d. 1751) 6. 1716 – Angelo Maria Amorevoli, Italian tenor and actor (d. 1798) 7. 1722 – Gabriel Chr...

    1901–present

    1. 1901 – Josef Schächter, Austrian rabbi and philosopher from the Vienna Circle (d. 1994) 2. 1905 – Vladimír Holan, Czech poet and author (d. 1980) 3. 1906 – Jack Churchill, Sri Lankan-English colonel (d. 1996) 4. 1910 – Erich Kempka, German colonel and chauffeur (d. 1975) 5. 1910 – Karl Kling, German race car driver and manager (d. 2003) 6. 1911 – Wilfred Burchett, Australian journalist and author (d. 1983) 7. 1911 – Paul Henning, American screenwriter and producer (d. 2005) 8. 1914 – Allen...

    Pre-1600

    1. 307 – Flavius Valerius Severus, Roman emperor 2. 655 – Pope Martin I 3. 1087 – Pope Victor III(b. 1026) 4. 1100 – Bernold of Constance, German priest and historian (b. 1054) 5. 1226 – Pandulf Verraccio, Roman ecclesiastical politician 6. 1343 – Philip III of Navarre(b. 1306) 7. 1345 – John IV, Duke of Brittany(b. 1295) 8. 1360 – William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton(b. 1319) 9. 1380 – Charles V of France(b. 1338) 10. 1394 – Antipope Clement VII(b. 1342) 11. 1406 – Cyprian, Metropolitan...

    1601–1900

    1. 1607 – Mary Stuart, English-Scottish princess (b. 1605) 2. 1672 – Anne Bradstreet, English poet (b. 1612) 3. 1701 – James II of England(b. 1633) 4. 1736 – Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, Polish-Dutch physicist and engineer, invented the thermometer(b. 1686) 5. 1792 – Nguyễn Huệ, Vietnamese emperor (b. 1753) 6. 1803 – Nicolas Baudin, French explorer, hydrographer, and cartographer (b. 1754) 7. 1819 – John Jeffries, American physician and surgeon (b. 1744) 8. 1824 – Louis XVIII of France(b. 1755)...

    1901–present

    1. 1911 – Edward Whymper, English-French mountaineer, explorer, and author (b. 1840) 2. 1914 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (b. 1843) 3. 1925 – Leo Fall, Czech-Austrian composer (b. 1873) 4. 1925 – Alexander Friedmann, Russian physicist and mathematician (b. 1888) 5. 1931 – Omar Mukhtar, Libyan theorist and educator (b. 1862) 6. 1932 – Millicent Lilian "Peg" Entwistle, British stage and screen actress (b. 1908) 7. 1932 – Ronald Ross, Indian-English physician and mathematician, Nobel P...

    Christian feast day:
    Day of Atonement / Yom Kippur is a moveable observance that occurs on the 10 of Tishrei, which is 16 September 2021.
    Cry of Dolores, celebrates the declaration of independence of Mexico from Spain in 1810. See Fiestas Patrias
    Independence Day (Papua New Guinea), celebrates the independence of Papua New Guinea from Australia in 1975.
  5. 16 de Septiembre es un ejido del municipio de Altar ubicado en el noroeste del estado mexicano de Sonora, en la zona del desierto de Sonora.El ejido es la segunda localidad más habitada del municipio, ya que según los datos del Censo de Población y Vivienda realizado en 2020 por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), 16 de Septiembre cuenta con 387 habitantes.

    • Historia
    • Fiesta Cívica
    • La Actualidad
    • Atentado en Morelia
    • Véase también
    • Bibliografía

    No existe documento alguno de participantes o testigos directos en las primeras horas del movimiento independentista; lo único seguro es que la mañana del 16 de septiembre de 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla convocó de alguna manera a los habitantes del Pueblo de Dolores y zonas aledañas, a quienes dirigió una arenga para que se sumaran a la rebelión, con lo que se formó el primer contingente que se alzó contra las fuerzas virreinales. Fuera de esos hechos, ninguno de los detalles que se conocen constan en documentos históricos de primera mano, por lo que son susceptibles de ponerse en duda. Según la tradición, la noche del sábado 15 al domingo 16 de septiembre de 1810, avisados de que la Conspiración en Querétaro había sido descubierta, Hidalgo y los otros líderes de la conjura decidieron iniciar el levantamiento contra las autoridades novohispanas. Se dirigieron a la Parroquia del pueblo, donde se tocó la campana ubicada en la torre oriente. La mayoría de los habitantes del pueblo s...

    La primera vez que se conmemoró el 16 de septiembre fue en un edificio conocido como El Chapitel, en Huichapan,[6]​ Hidalgo, el 16 de septiembre de 1812, por el general Ignacio López Rayón. Los festejos iniciaron al alba con una descarga de artillería y una vuelta general de esquilas. Luego, López Rayón asistió a una misa con su escolta y una compañía de granaderos. Después tuvo lugar el militar asistió a una "serenata, compitiendo entre sí dos músicas, (que) desempeñaron varias piezas selectas con gusto de S.E. y satisfacción de todo el público”.[7]​ Después, José María Morelos, en uno de los veintitrés puntos que conforman sus Sentimientos de la Nación, propuso al Congreso de Chilpancingo que en la Constitución en la que por entonces se trabajaba "igualmente se solemnice el día 16 de septiembre todos los años, como el día aniversario en que se levantó la voz de la Independencia y nuestra santa Libertad comenzó, pues en ese día fue en el que se desplegaron los labios de la Nación p...

    Aunque se trata de la fecha mayor del calendario cívico mexicano, la ceremonia del grito carece de protocolo oficial. Sin embargo, se realiza en medio de un ambiente solemne apegado a las disposiciones legales sobre el uso de los símbolos nacionales, basado en una férrea tradición que se ha afianzado con el paso de las décadas. Para recordar ese hecho, cada año a las 11 de la noche del 15 de septiembre, los titulares del Poder Ejecutivo en los distintos niveles de gobierno —presidentes municipales (o jefes delegacionales en el Distrito Federal), gobernadores y el Presidente de la República—, así como los embajadores en las representaciones en el extranjero, portando una bandera nacional, dirigen a la población reunida una arenga, la cual por lo regular incluye las siguientes frases: 1. ¡Mexicanos! 2. ¡Vivan los héroes que nos dieron patria y libertad! 3. ¡Víva Hidalgo! 4. ¡Viva Morelos! 5. ¡Viva Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez! 6. ¡Viva Allende! 7. ¡Vivan Aldama y Matamoros! 8. ¡Viva la i...

    En el 2008, durante la ceremonia del Grito en Morelia, capital del estado de Michoacán, se registraron una serie de ataques con granadas contra la población civil. Mientras el entonces gobernador, Leonel Godoy Rangel, daba la arenga desde el Palacio de Gobierno, un grupo de personas desconocidas soltaron casi simultáneamente dos granadas de fragmentación: una en la Plaza Melchor Ocampo y la otra en la calle Andrés Quintana Roo, en un momento en el que se encontraban aglomeradas cerca de 30,000 personas. Las explosiones mataron al instante a tres personas, y otras cinco fallecieron por las heridas en el curso de las siguientes horas, mientras que se registraron 106 heridos. Se señaló como responsables a tres presuntos integrantes de la organización criminal Los Zetas.[cita requerida]

    Herrejón Peredo, Carlos (2009). «Versiones del grito de Dolores y algo más». En Rafael Vargas, ed. 20/10. Memoria de las revoluciones en México. México: RGM Medios. pp. 38-53. ISBN 978-607-7748-04-...
    Rodríguez O., Jaime E. (2008). La independencia de la América española. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, El Colegio de México, Fideicomiso Historia de las Américas. ISBN 978-968-16-7556-1. |fech...
    • Prior Challenges to Crown Rule
    • Age of Revolution, Spain and New Spain
    • French Invasion of Spain and Political Crisis in New Spain, 1808–09
    • The Hidalgo Revolt
    • Insurgency in The South Under Morelos, 1811–1815
    • Insurgency Under Vicente Guerrero, 1815–1820
    • Guerrero, Iturbide, and The Plan of Iguala
    • Collapse of Imperial Rule and Independence
    • Creation of The First Mexican Empire
    • Spanish Attempts to Reconquer Mexico

    There is evidence that from an early period in post-conquest Mexican history that some began articulating the idea of a separate Mexican identity, though this was reserved to elite Creole circles.Despite that, challenges to Spanish imperial power before the insurgency for independence were rare, though some are of note. One early challenge was by Spanish conquerors whose encomienda grants from the crown, rewards for conquest were to be ended following the deaths of the current grant holders. The encomenderos' conspiracy included Don Martín Cortés (son of Hernán Cortés). The marquis was exiled, other conspirators were executed. Another challenge occurred in 1624 when elites ousted the reformist viceroy who sought to break up rackets from which they profited and curtail opulent displays of clerical power. Viceroy Marqués de Gelves was removed, following an urban riot of Mexico City plebeians in 1624 stirred up by those elites. The crowd was reported to have shouted, "Long live the Kin...

    The eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Age of Revolution was already underway when the 1808 Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula destabilized not only Spain but also Spain's overseas possessions. In 1776 the Anglo-American Thirteen Colonies and the American Revolution successfully gained their independence in 1783, with the help of both the Spanish Empire and Louis XVI's French monarchy. Louis XVI was toppled in the French Revolution of 1789, with the aristocrats and the king himself losing his head in revolutionary violence. The rise of military strong man Napoleon Bonaparte brought some order within France, but the turmoil there set the stage for the black slave revolt in the French sugar colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) in 1791. The Haitian Revolution obliterated the slavocracyand gained independence for Haiti in 1804.

    The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula destabilized not only Spain but also Spain's overseas possessions. The viceroy was the "king’s living image" in New Spain. In 1808 viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–1808) was in office when Napoleon's forces invaded Iberia and deposed the Spanish monarch Charles IV and Napoleon's brother Joseph was declared the monarch. This turn of events set off a crisis of legitimacy. Viceroy Iturrigaray had been appointed by Charles IV, so his legitimacy to rule was not in doubt. In Mexico City, the city council (ayuntamiento), a stronghold of American-born Spaniards, began promoting ideas of autonomy for New Spain, and declaring New Spain to be on an equal basis to Spain. Their proposal would have created a legitimate, representative, and autonomous government in New Spain, but not necessarily breaking from the Spanish Empire. Opposition to that proposal came from conservative elements, including the peninsular-born judges of the High Court (Audi...

    Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is now considered the father of Mexican independence. His uprising on 16 September 1810 is considered the spark igniting the Mexican War of Independence. He inspired tens of thousands of ordinary men to follow him, but did not organize them into a disciplined fighting force or have a broad military strategy, but he did want to destroy the old order. Fellow insurgent leader and second in command, Ignacio Allende, said of Hidalgo, "Neither were his men amenable to discipline, nor was Hidalgo interested in regulations." Hidalgo issued a few important decrees in the later stage of the insurgency, but did not articulate a coherent set of goals much beyond his initial call to arms denouncing bad government. Only following Hidalgo's death in 1811 under the leadership of his former seminary student, Father José María Morelos, was a document created that made explicit the goals of the insurgency, the Sentimientos de la Nación("Sentiments of the Nation") (1813). One...

    Warfare in the northern Bajío region waned after the capture and execution of the insurgency's creole leadership, but the insurgency had already spread to other more southern regions, to the towns of Zitácuaro, Cuautla, Antequera (now Oaxaca) towns where a new leadership had emerged. Priests José María Morelos and Mariano Matamoros, as well as Vicente Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria, and Ignacio López Rayóncarried on the insurgency on a different basis, organizing their forces, using guerrilla tactics, and importantly for the insurgency, creating organizations and creating written documents that articulated the insurgents' goals. Following the execution of Hidalgo and other insurgents, leadership of the remaining insurgent movement initially coalesced under Ignacio López Rayón, a civilian lawyer and businessman. He had been stationed in Saltillo, Coahuila with 3,500 men and 22 cannons. When he heard of the capture of the insurgent leaders, he fled south on 26 March 1811 to continue the...

    With the execution of Morelos in 1815, Vicente Guerrero emerged as the most important leader of the insurgency. From 1815 to 1821 most of the fighting for independence from Spain was by guerrilla forces in the tierra caliente (hot country) of southern Mexico and to a certain extent in northern New Spain. In 1816, Francisco Javier Mina, a Spanish military leader who had fought against Ferdinand VII, joined the independence movement. Mina and 300 men landed at Rio Santander (Tamaulipas) in April, in 1817 and fought for seven months until his capture by royalist forces in November 1817.: 55–58 Two insurgent leaders arose: Guadalupe Victoria (born José Miguel Fernández y Félix) in Puebla and Vicente Guerrero in the village of Tixla, in what is now the state of Guerrero. Both gained allegiance and respect from their followers. Believing the situation under control, the Spanish viceroy issued a general pardon to every rebel who would lay down his arms. Many did lay down their arms and rec...

    Iturbide's assignment to the Oaxaca expedition in 1820 coincided with a successful military coup in Spain against the monarchy of Ferdinand VII. The coup leaders, part of an expeditionary force assembled to suppress the independence movements in the Americas, had turned against the autocratic monarchy. They compelled the reluctant Ferdinand to reinstate the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812that created a constitutional monarchy. When news of the liberal charter reached New Spain, Iturbide perceived it both as a threat to the status quo and a catalyst to rouse the creole elites to gain control of Mexico. Independence was achieved when conservative Royalist forces in the colonies chose to rise up against the liberal regime in Spain; it was an about-face compared to their previous opposition to the peasant insurgency. The royalist army was demoralized and the insurgents were unable to oust them. With the re-imposition of the Spanish Constitution, the relationship between newly elect...

    Iturbide had to persuade royalist officers to change sides and support independence as well as the mixed-race old insurgent forces. For some royalist commanders, their forces simply left, some of them amnestied former insurgents. The high military command in Mexico City deposed the viceroy, Juan Ruiz de Apodaca in July 1821, replacing him with an interim viceroy, royalist general Francisco Novella. By the time that the new viceroy Juan O'Donojú, practically the whole country supported the Plan of Iguala. Most soldiers had defected to Iturbide's Army of the Three Guarantees and the Spanish cause was lost. On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown, including the new viceroy Juan O'Donojú and Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence under the Plan of Iguala. O'Donojú then resigned as viceroy. The Spanish government denied that O'Donojú had the authority to sign the treaty, but events on the ground saw Iturbide and the Army of Three Gua...

    On September 27, 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City, and the following day Iturbide proclaimed the independence of the Mexican Empire, as New Spain was henceforth to be called. The Treaty of Córdoba was not ratified by the Spanish Cortes. Iturbide included a special clause in the treaty that left open the possibility for a criollo monarch to be appointed by a Mexican congress if no suitable member of the European royalty would accept the Mexican crown. Half of the new government employees appointed were Iturbide's followers. On the night of May 18, 1822, a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, which Iturbide had commanded during the war, marched through the streets and demanded their commander-in-chief to accept the throne. The following day, the Congress declared Iturbide Emperor of Mexico. On October 31, 1822, Iturbide dissolved Congress and replaced it with a sympathetic junta.

    Despite the creation of the Mexican nation, the Spanish still managed to hold onto a port in Veracruz that Mexico did not get control of until 23 November 1825. Spanish attempts to re-establish control over Mexico culminated in the 1829 Battle of Tampico, during which a Spanish invasion force was surrounded in Tampico and forced to surrender. On 28 December 1836, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico under the Santa María–Calatrava Treaty, signed in Madrid by the Mexican Commissioner Miguel Santa María and the Spanish state minister José María Calatrava. Mexico was the first former colony whose independence was recognized by Spain; the second was Ecuadoron 16 February 1840.

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