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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › BavariaBavaria - Wikipedia

    Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, and in Europe. Its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2007 exceeded €434 billion (about U.S. $600 billion). This makes Bavaria itself one of the largest economies in Europe, and only 20 countries in the world have a higher GDP.

    • 70,550.19 km² (27,239.58 sq mi)
    • Germany
  2. Baviera [nota 1] (en alemán, Bayern; en bávaro, Bayern) oficialmente Estado Libre de Baviera (Freistaat Bayern) [nota 2] es una región cultural y uno de los dieciséis estados federados de Alemania, siendo el más grande y el segundo más poblado de ellos, con 13,1 millones de habitantes.

  3. Bavaria Solarpark, central solar fotovoltaica de 20 MW ubicada en Alemania Bavaria (estatua) , figura alegórica femenina que simboliza a Baviera. Bavaria Film , una de las mayores productoras cinematográficas de Europa.

    • Early Settlements and Roman Raetia
    • Migrations and Early Medieval Period
    • The Stem Duchy of Bavaria
    • Under The Wittelsbach Dynasty
    • Reunited Duchy
    • Electorate of Bavaria
    • Kingdom of Bavaria
    • Modern Times
    • See Also
    • Bibliography

    There have been numerous palaeolithic discoveries in Bavaria. The earliest known inhabitants that are mentioned in written sources were the Celts, participating in the widespread La Tène culture, whom the Romans subdued just before the commencement of the Christian era, founding colonies among them and including their land in the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Roman center of administration for this area was Castra Regina (modern-day Regensburg).

    During the 5th century, the Romans in Noricum and Raetia, south of the Danube, came under increasing pressure from people north of the Danube. This area had become inhabited by Suebian groups from further north and was considered by Romans to be part of Germania. The etymological origins of the name "Bavarian" (Latin Baiovarii) are from the north of the Danube, outside the empire, coming from the Celtic Boii, who lived there earlier. Their name was already used to refer to the part of this region in the time of Maroboduus who formed the Germanic Marcomannic kingdom with its capital in this forested area. Boi became Bai according to typical Germanic linguistic changes happening at that time and a Germanic word similar to English "home" or modern German "Heim" was added. Strabo therefore reports Boihaemum (Greek Βουίαιμον). Tacitus similarly reports that Boihaemum is the name given to the area where the Boii had lived. These forms led to modern Bohemia which lies to the east of modern...

    Bavaria and the Agilolfings under Frankish overlordship

    The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle. The Franks regarded this border area as a buffer zone against peoples to the east, such as the Avars and the Slavs, and as a source of manpower for the army. Sometime around 550 AD they put it under the administration of a duke - possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families - who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke known wa...

    Christianity

    Christianity had lingered in Bavaria from Roman times, but a new era set in when Bishop Rupert of Worms came to the county at the invitation of Duke Theodo I in 696. He founded several monasteries, as did Bishop Emmeran of Poitiers, with the result that before long, most of the people professed Christianity and relations commenced between Bavaria and Rome. The 8th century witnessed indeed a heathen reaction, but the arrival of Saint Boniface in Bavaria during c. 734 AD checked apostasy.[citat...

    The Duchy during the Carolingian period

    The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century intertwines with that of the Carolingian empire. Bavaria, given during the partition of 817 AD to the king of the East Franks, Louis the German, formed a part of the larger territories confirmed to him in 843 AD by the Treaty of Verdun. Louis made Regensburg the center of his government and actively developed Bavaria, providing for its security by numerous campaigns against the Slavs. When he divided his possessions in 865 AD, it passed to his el...

    A new era began when, in consequence of Henry the Lion being placed under an imperial ban in 1180 AD, Emperor Frederick I awarded the duchy to Otto, a member of the old Bavarian family of Wittelsbach and a descendant of the counts of Scheyern. The Wittelsbach dynasty ruled Bavaria without interruption until 1918 AD. The Electorate of the Palatinatewas also acquired by the Wittelsbachs in 1214 AD. When Otto of Wittelsbach gained Bavaria at Altenburg in September 1180, the duchy's borders comprised the Böhmerwald, the Inn, the Alps and the Lech; and the duke exercised practical power only over his extensive private domains around Wittelsbach, Kelheim and Straubing. Otto only enjoyed three years of rule over Bavaria. His son Louis I succeeded him in 1183 AD, playing a leading part in German affairs during the early years of the reign of the emperor Frederick II until Louis was assassinated at Kelheim in September 1231. His son Otto II, called the Illustrious, remained loyal to the Hohe...

    Renaissance and Counter-Reformation

    In spite of the decree of 1506, William IV was compelled to grant a share in the government in 1516 to his brother Louis X, an arrangement which lasted until the death of Louis in 1545. William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy of opposition to the Habsburgs until in 1534 he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand, the king of Hungary and Bohemia. This link strengthened in 1546, when the emperor Charles V obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by pro...

    Thirty Years' War

    Maximilian, I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule affected a remarkable change. The finances and the judicial system were reorganized, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority. The result was unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War; during the earlier years of which he was so successf...

    Absolutism

    The international position won by Maximilian I adds to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries were most dubious. Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria(1651–1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, tried to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries. In 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since 1612. His good wo...

    Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods

    In 1792, French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795 the French, under Moreau, invaded Bavaria itself and advanced to Munich where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals, and laid siege to Ingolstadt. Charles Theodore, who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony and abandoned a regency whose members signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution (7 September 1796). Bet...

    Constitution and Revolution

    Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to Austria the northern Tyrol and Vorarlberg; during the Congress of Vienna it was decided that she was to add to these the greater part of Salzburg and the Innviertel and Hausruck[de]. She received as compensation, besides Würzburg and Aschaffenburg, the Palatinate (region) on the left bank of the Rhine and certain districts of Hesse-Darmstadt and of the former Abbacy of Fulda. But with the collapse of France, the old fears and...

    German Empire

    The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question. The South German Confederation, contemplated by the 6th article of the Treaty of Prague, never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria (as of the other southern states) with...

    Bavaria during the Weimar Republic

    Republican institutions replaced royal ones in Bavaria during the upheavals of November 1918. Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declared Bavaria to be a free state on 8 November 1918. Eisner was assassinated on 21 February 1919 ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short lived Bavarian Socialist Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik) being proclaimed from 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notabl...

    Bavaria during Nazi Germany

    With the rise of the Nazis to power in 1933, the Bavarian parliament was dissolved without new elections. Instead, the seats were allocated according to the results in the national election of March 1933, giving the Nazis and its coalition partner, the DNVP, a narrow two-seat majority due to the fact that the seats won by the KPD were declared void. With this controlling power, the NSDAP was declared the only legal party and all other parties in Germany and Bavaria were dissolved. In 1934, th...

    Bavaria during the Federal Republic of Germany

    Following the end of World War II, Bavaria was occupied for a while by US forces, who reestablished the state on 19 September 1945, and during the Cold War it was part of West Germany. In 1946 Bavaria lost its district on the Rhine, the Palatinate. The destruction caused by aerial bombings during the war, in addition to the fact that Bavaria had to take in over two million refugees from the parts of Germany now under Sovietoccupation, caused major problems for the authorities. The Bavarian Pa...

    Bischel, Matthias (2019). "An English-Language Bibliography on Bavarian History: Academic Publications of the Last Fifty Years". Bavarian Studies in History and Culture.
    Reindel, K. (1981). Die Bajuwaren. Quellen, Hypothesen, Tatsachen. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters37:451-473.
    Schutz, H. (2000). The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400-750New York: Peter Lang.
    Strayer, J.(Ed.) (1983) Dictionary of the Middle Ages; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    • Overview
    • History
    • Geography, administrative regions and population

    The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federated state of the new empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. The polity's foundation dates back to the ascension of prince-elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach as King of Bavaria in 1805. The crow

    On 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession on the Electorate of Bavaria passed to Charles Theodore, the Elector Palatine. After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich and ...

    On 26 May 1818, Bavaria's second constitution was proclaimed. The constitution established a bicameral Parliament. The upper house comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the royal princes, holders of the crown offices, archbishops, members of the Mediatized Houses in

    In 1825, Ludwig I ascended the throne of Bavaria. Under Ludwig, the arts flourished in Bavaria, and Ludwig personally ordered and financially assisted the creation of many neoclassical buildings and architecture across Bavaria. Ludwig also increased Bavaria's pace towards industr

    When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, and Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, its land area doubled. Tyrol and Salzburg were temporarily united with Bavaria but then returned or ceded to Habsburg/Austrian rule. In return the Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. After the founding of the kingdom the state was totally reorganised and, in 1808, divided into 15 administrative government districts in Bavaria called Kreise. They were created in the fashion of the Fr

    • Historia
    • Embotelladoras Y Marcas
    • Premios Y Reconocimientos
    • Véase también
    • Enlaces Externos

    Inicios

    En 1876[2]​ los hermanos alemanes Leo Siegfried y Emil Kopp llegaron a Santanderen búsqueda de oportunidades de negocio. En 1879, junto con los hermanos Santiago y Carlos Arturo Castello, conformaron en Bogotá la sociedad Kopp y Castello, destinada al comercio y la importación de bienes. El 4 de abril de 1889, fue registrada en Bogotá la adquisición de un lote para la construcción de una fábrica de cerveza. En 1890, se disolvió la sociedad Kopp y Castello y se creó la empresa Bavaria Kopp’s D...

    Crecimiento

    En 1930, Bavaria compró las empresas Handel en Industrie Maatschappij y la Cervecería Continental de Medellín y creó el Consorcio de Cervecerías Bavaria, que incorporó más adelante a la Colombiana de Cervezas de Manizales y su marca Poker, así como a otras plantas cerveceras en Santa Marta, Cali, Pereira y Honda.[5]​

    Estatización

    Cervecería Bavaria se convirtió en la única compañía colombiana que sobrevivió al siglo XIX. En 1943, como resultado de la declaración de guerra de Colombia contra el Reich alemán, todas las empresas alemanas en Colombia se nacionalizaron. Para ese entonces, su fundador había muerto en 1927 y su hijo Guillermo Kopp Castello se había hecho cargo de la cervecería. La empresa con las instalaciones de producción fue adquirida por la familia más adinerada de Colombia, Santo Domingo, con el empresa...

    Sus productos son elaborados en seis plantas cerveceras ubicadas en diferentes ciudades de Colombia, como Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Tibasosa, Medellín, Tocancipá y Yumbo. Además, cuenta con dos malterías, una en Cartagena y otra en Tibitó vía Zipaquirá-Briceño, dos fábricas de etiquetas y una de tapas. Las cervezas nacionales producidas por Bavaria son: Águila Original, Águila 0.0, Águila Light, Águila Fusión Limón, Póker, Póker Pura Malta, Póker Roja, Costeña, Costeña Bacana, Costeñita, Club Colombia Dorada, Club Colombia Roja, Club Colombia Negra, Club Colombia Trigo, Club Colombia Oktoberfest, Club Colombia Siembra, Azteca, Nativa, Redd's y Pilsen. Las importadas que distribuye son: Corona, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra, Busch Light, Beck's y Stella Artois. Su bebida Hard se comercializa como MIKE'S. Sus bebidas sin alcohol se comercializan como Pony Malta, Pony Malta Mini, Pony Malta Pix, Pony Malta Bit, Pony Malta Vital, Malta Leona, Agua Zalva Cola & Pola y Cola & Pola Lulo.

    Superior Taste Award [21]​ Club Colombia y Pony Malta reciben premio internacional de calidad. El instituto Monde Selection de Bruselas, Bélgica, que premia a las bebidas con la más alta calidad en...
    Superior Taste Award 2011[22]​ con dos estrellas doradas a Club Colombia Roja y con tres estrellas doradas a Águila y Club Colombia, galardonado por el International Taste & Quality Institute de Br...
    Superior Taste Award 2012[23]​ con 1 estrella dorada a Águila Light, con dos estrellas doradas a Club Colombia Roja y Club Colombia Negra; y con 3 estrellas doradas a Club Colombiay Águila, galardo...
    Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Cervecería Bavaria.
    • COP1621C1034
    • Cerveza
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