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  1. 23/12/2021 · William Cavendish, 1st earl of Devonshire, first of the long line of Devonshire peers. The son of Sir William Cavendish and his third wife, Elizabeth Hardwick (afterward the Countess of Shrewsbury), the young Cavendish was educated at Eton College and Gray’s Inn and was knighted in 1580 and created

    • Family
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    • First English Civil War
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    William Cavendish was born at Handsworth Manor, Yorkshire, the eldest surviving son of Sir Charles Cavendish and Catherine Ogle, descended from the Barons Ogle. He was a grandson of Bess of Hardwick, and courtier William Cavendish. He had a younger brother Charles(1594–1654), and the two remained close friends throughout their lives. In 1618, Cavendish married Elizabeth Howard (1599–1643), with whom he had five children; Jane (1621–1669), Charles (1626–1659), Elizabeth (1626–1663), Henry, 2nd Duke of Newcastle (1630–1691), and Frances. Encouraged by their father, Jane and Elizabeth became minor poets and writers. In 1645, he married Margaret Lucas, a natural philosopher and writer.With his help and support, she became a popular writer of plays, poetry, and fiction, and was known as "mad Madge" for her extravagant style and affected manner.

    He was created a Knight of the Bath (KB) in 1610 and sat in the House of Commons as the member for East Retford in the Addled Parliamentof 1614. He succeeded his father in 1617. On 3 November 1620 Cavendish was created 'Viscount Mansfield', then 'Earl of Newcastle-upon-Tyne' in 1628. In 1629 he inherited his mother's barony of Ogle, together with an estate of £3,000 per annum. In 1638 he became governor of Charles, Prince of Wales, and in 1639 a Privy Counsellor. When the Scottish war (1639–1640) broke out he assisted King Charles I with a loan of £10,000 and a troop of volunteer horse, consisting of 120 knights and gentlemen. He was appointed Gentleman of the Robes in 1641, but was implicated in the Army Plot, and in consequence withdrew for a time from the court.

    As tension increased, both Charles and Parliament tried to secure key ports and weapons; an attempt by Newcastle to capture Hull in July failed. When Charles formally declared war in August, Newcastle was given command of the four northern counties, largely because he was willing to pay for his own troops. In November 1642, he advanced into Yorkshire, raised the siege of York, and forced Lord Fairfax to retire after attacking him at Tadcaster. Fighting continued during the winter, as Newcastle tried to secure a landing place for an arms convoy organised by Henrietta Maria, who was in the Dutch Republic purchasing weapons. He had insufficient troops to hold the entire area, and Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax and his son Sir Thomas, retained key towns like Hull, and Leeds. In late February 1643, a convoy with Henrietta Maria and weapons landed at Bridlington, and was escorted to Oxford. Combined with a victory at Adwalton Moornear Leeds in June, he was created 'Marquess of Ne...

    At the Restoration (1660) Newcastle returned to England, and succeeded in regaining the greater part of his estates, though burdened with debts, his wife estimating his total losses in the war at the enormous sum of £941,303. He was reinstated in the offices he had filled under Charles I and appointed a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. He was invested in 1661 with the Order of the Garterwhich had been bestowed upon him in 1650, and was advanced to a dukedom (of Newcastle-on-Tyne) on 16 March 1665. He retired, however, from public life and occupied himself with his estate and with his favourite pursuit of training horses. He established a racecourse near Welbeck. In his later years, he suffered from Parkinson's disease, and the sudden death of his second wife was a blow from which he never recovered. With John Dryden's assistance he translated Molière's L'Etourdi as Sir Martin Mar-all(1688). He contributed scenes to his wife's plays, and poems of his composition are to be found among her...

    Méthode et invention nouvelle de dresser les chevaux(1658)
    A New Method and Extraordinary Invention to Dress Horses and Work them according to Nature... (1667)
    This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Newcastle, Dukes of s.v. William Cavendish". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19(11th ed.). Cambridg...
    Hulse, Lynn (2011). "Cavendish, William, first duke of Newcastle upon Tyne". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4946. (Subscription...
    Royle, Trevor (2004). Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638–1660 (2006 ed.). Abacus. ISBN 978-0-349-11564-1.
    Wedgwood, CV (1958). The King's War, 1641-1647 (2001 ed.). Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0141390727.
    • Date and Performance
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    The play's date of authorship and its performance history are not known in detail; it was performed at the Blackfriars Theatre by the King's Men, and is plausibly dated to c. 1639–40. The Country Captain was revived early in the Restoration period. Samuel Pepyssaw it performed on 21 October 1661. In his Diary he called it "so silly a play as in all my life I never saw" — though this negative verdict did not prevent Pepys from seeing the play again on 25 November that year, on 14 August 1667 and on 14 May 1668.

    The play was first printed in a duodecimo volume that included Newcastle's play The Variety, issued by the booksellers Humphrey Moseley and Humphrey Robinson in 1649. That first edition attributes the plays only to "a person of honor," though Newcastle's authorship is stated in 17th-century sources. The Country Captain also exists in a manuscript, Harleian MS. 7650 in the collection of the British Museum; the MS. is judged to be in the hand of Edward Knight, the prompter of the King's Men. The two texts are very similar though not identical; the manuscript appears to be the original authorial version, while the printed text shows the cuts and changes that adjusted the play for stage performance.

    A. H. Bullen edited the play, from the manuscript, for the second volume of his series Old English Plays (1883) — apparently unaware of the 1649 printed text. Bullen followed J. O. Halliwell-Philips in titling the play Captain Underwit, and attributed the work to James Shirley. Subsequent critics and scholars have almost universally concluded that Bullen went too far to assigning the entire play to Shirley, and have judged that Newcastle "is almost certainly the author of this comedy." But most have accepted the view that Shirley had some hand in helping Newcastle to write the play. Some have speculated a connection with a lost play by Shirley titled Look to the Lady, which was entered into the Stationers' Register on 11 March 1640but never published — "Look to the Lady" being a reasonable alternative title for the drama (see the Synopsis below). The relationship between Cavendish and Shirley is clear from 17th-century sources. In his Athenae Oxoniensis, Anthony à Wood wrote that "o...

    Sir Richard Huntlove is an elderly aristocrat who is jealous of his beautiful and vivacious young wife. His jealousy is more valid than he realizes, for Lady Huntlove is planning an affair with a gentleman named Sir Francis Courtwell. To distance his wife from the temptations of London, Sir Richard moves his household to his country estate — along with a gaggle of followers and hangers-on, including: Lady Huntlove's otherwise-unnamed Sister; Sir Francis Courtwell and his nephew, the younger Courtwell being in love with the Sister; Captain Underwit, Sir Richard's stepson by his first wife; Engine, a "projector" or speculator; Device, a "fantastical gallant;" and Captain Sacksbury, a drunken old soldier. Captain Underwit has just received a commission in the local militia, and Captain Sacksbury is his mentor. Lady Huntlove's maid Dorothy is also present; she intends to become Mrs. Capt. Underwit. Sir Francis arranges a meeting with Lady Huntlove; he fakes indisposition when Sir Richar...

    Davis, Joe Lee. The Sons of Ben: Jonsonian Comedy in Caroline England.Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1967.
    Forsythe, Robert Stanley. The Relations of Shirley's Plays to the Elizabethan Drama.New York, Columbia University Press, 1914.
    Logan, Terence P., and Denzell S. Smith, eds. The Later Jacobean and Caroline Dramatists,Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1978;
    Nason, Arthur Huntington. James Shirley, Dramatist: A Biographical and Critical Study.New York, 1915; reprinted New York, Benjamin Blom, 1967.
  2. 14/01/2022 · William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire. 1892–1908: Spencer Compton Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire. 1908–19: John William Strutt, Baron Rayleigh. 1919–30: Arthur James Balfour, Earl of Balfour. 1930–47: Stanley Baldwin, Earl Baldwin of Bewdley. 1948–50: Jan Christian Smuts. 1950– Arthur William Tedder, Baron Tedder.

  3. 13/01/2022 · The mansion afterwards fell to the noble family of Cavendish, William Cavendish, the second Earl of Devonshire, dying in it about the year 1628. The family of Cavendish appear to have been old Bishopsgate residents, as Thomas Cavendish, Treasurer of the Exchequer to Henry VIII., buried his lady in St. Botolph's Church, and by will bequeathed a legacy for the repair of the building.

  4. 23/12/2021 · "It was completed in the 1590s for her second son William Cavendish,” the civic society say. "Because his first wife died young, William never moved to Oldcotes from Hardwick and the house was ...

  5. 25/12/2021 · Notable was William Cavendish-Bentinck, the 3rd Duke of Portland and twice prime minister, who spent so lavishly in 1771 that in settlement he was forced to give up his holding of Longstock Manor to the then innkeeper Richard Bird.

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