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William Howe. William Howe, 5º Visconde de Howe ( 10 de agosto de 1729 - 12 de julio de 1814 ), fue un general británico, comandante en jefe de las tropas reales de Gran Bretaña durante la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos. Fue nombrado caballero tras sus éxitos en 1775, y asumió el título de Quinto Vizconde Howe en 1799, tras ...
William Howe. Title Commander-in-Chief, America; Major General. Date of Birth - Death August 10, 1729 - July 12, 1814. A talented and experienced soldier from a family that produced many talented and experienced soldiers, William Howe nonetheless became the scapegoat for the British failure to crush the American Revolution early on.
William Howe, commander in chief of the British army in North America (1776–78) who, despite several military successes, failed to destroy the Continental Army and stem the American Revolution. Brother of Adm. Richard Lord Howe, William Howe had been active in North America during the last French
William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British land forces in the Colonies during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who had distinguished military careers.
William Howe. Militar inglés, participó en la Guerra de Independencia de las Trece Colonias. Nacimiento. 10 de agosto de 1729. Inglaterra. Fallecimiento. 12 de julio de 1814. Plymouth, Inglaterra. Ocupación.
- 12 de julio de 1814Plymouth, Inglaterra
- 10 de agosto de 1729Inglaterra
- Early Life
- Fighting in North America
- Battle of Quebec
- Colonial Tensions
- American Revolution Begins
- Bunker Hill
- New York
- New Jersey
- Two Plans
- Philadelphia Captured
William Howe was born August 10, 1729, and was the third son of Emanuel Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe and his wife Charlotte. His grandmother had been the mistress of King George I and as a result Howe and his three brothers were the illegitimate uncles of King George III. Influential in the halls of power, Emanuel Howe served as Governor of Barbados while his wife regularly attended the courts of King George II and King George III. Attending Eton, the younger Howe followed his two elder brothers into the military on September 18, 1746 when he purchased a commission as a coronet in Cumberland's Light Dragoons. A quick study, he was promoted to lieutenant the following year and saw service in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession. Elevated to captain on January 2, 1750, Howe transferred to the 20th Regiment of Foot. While with the unit, he befriended Major James Wolfe under whom he would serve in North America during the French and Indian War.
On January 4, 1756, Howe was appointed major of the newly formed 60th Regiment (re-designated 58th in 1757) and traveled with the unit to North America for operations against the French. Promoted to lieutenant colonel in December 1757, he served in Major General Jeffery Amherst's army during its campaign to capture Cape Breton Island. In this role he took part in Amherst's successful siege of Louisbourgthat summer where he commanded the regiment. During the campaign, Howe earned a commendation for making a daring amphibious landing while under fire. With the death of his brother, Brigadier General George Howe at the Battle of Carillonthat July, William attained a seat in Parliament representing Nottingham. This was aided by his mother who campaigned on his behalf while he was overseas as she believed that a seat in Parliament would aid in advancing her son's military career.
Remaining in North America, Howe served in Wolfe's campaign against Quebec in 1759. This began with a failed effort at Beauport on July 31 that saw the British suffer a bloody defeat. Unwilling to press the attack at Beauport, Wolfe decided cross the St. Lawrence River and land at Anse-au-Foulon to the southwest. This plan was executed and on September 13, Howe led the initial light infantry assault which secured the road up to the Plains of Abraham. Appearing outside of the city, the British opened the the Battle of Quebeclater that day and won a decisive victory. Remaining in the region, he helped defend Quebec through the winter, including participation in the Battle of Sainte-Foy, before aiding in Amherst's capture of Montreal the following year.
Returning to Europe, Howe took part in the siege of Belle Île in 1762 and was offered the military governorship of the island. Preferring to remain in active military service, he declined this post and instead served as the adjutant general of the force that assaulted Havana, Cuba in 1763. With the end of the conflict, Howe returned to England. Appointed colonel of the 46th Regiment of Foot in Ireland in 1764, he was elevated to governor of the Isle of Wight four years later. Recognized as a gifted commander, Howe was promoted to major general in 1772, and a short time later took over training of the army's light infantry units. Representing a largely Whig constituency in Parliament, Howe opposed the Intolerable Acts and preached reconciliation with the American colonists as tensions grew in 1774 and early 1775. His feelings were shared by his brother, Admiral Richard Howe. Though publicly stating that he would resist service against the Americans, he accepted the position as second...
Stating that "he was ordered, and could not refuse," Howe sailed for Boston with Major Generals Henry Clinton and John Burgoyne. Arriving May 15, Howe brought reinforcements for General Thomas Gage. Under siege in the city following the American victories at Lexington and Concord, the British were forced to take action on June 17 when American forces fortified Breed's Hill on the Charlestown Peninsula overlooking the city. Lacking a sense of urgency, the British commanders spent much of the morning discussing plans and making preparations while the Americans worked to strengthen their position. While Clinton favored an amphibious attack to cut off the American line of retreat, Howe advocated a more conventional frontal attack. Taking the conservative route, Gage ordered Howe to move forward with a direct assault.
In the resulting Battle of Bunker Hill, Howe's men succeeded in driving off the Americans but sustained over 1,000 casualties in capturing their works. Though a victory, the battle deeply influenced Howe and crushed his initial belief that the rebels represented only a small part of the American people. A dashing, daring commander earlier in his career, the high losses at Bunker Hill made Howe more conservative and less inclined to attack strong enemy positions. Knighted that year, Howe was temporarily appointed commander-in-chief on October 10 (it was made permanent in April 1776) when Gage returned to England. Assessing the strategic situation, Howe and his superiors in London planned to establish bases in New York and Rhode Island in 1776 with the goal of isolating the rebellion and containing it in New England. Forced out of Boston on March 17, 1776, after General George Washingtonemplaced guns on Dorchester Heights, Howe withdrew with the army to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
There, a new campaign was planned with the goal of taking New York. Landing on Staten Island on July 2, Howe's army soon swelled to over 30,000 men. Crossing to Gravesend Bay, Howe exploited the light American defenses at Jamaica Pass and succeeded in flanking Washington's army. The resulting Battle of Long Islandon August 26/27 saw the Americans beaten and forced to retreat. Falling back to fortifications at Brooklyn Heights, the Americans awaited a British assault. Based on his earlier experiences, Howe was reluctant to attack and began siege operations. This hesitation allowed Washington's army to escape to Manhattan. Howe was soon joined by his brother who had orders to act as a peace commissioner. On September 11, 1776, the Howes met with John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Edward Rutledge on Staten Island. While the American representatives demanded recognition of independence, the Howes were only permitted to extend pardons to those rebels who submitted to British authority. T...
Again showing an unwillingness to eliminate Washington's army, Howe soon moved into winter quarters around New York and only dispatched a small force under Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis to create a "safe zone" in northern New Jersey. He also dispatched Clinton to occupy Newport, RI. Recovering in Pennsylvania, Washington was able to win victories at Trenton, Assunpink Creek, Princetonin December and January. As a result, Howe pulled back many of his outposts. While Washington continued small-scale operations during the winter, Howe was content to remain in New York enjoying a full social calendar.
In the spring of 1777, Burgoyne proposed a plan for defeating the Americans which called for him to lead an army south through Lake Champlain to Albany while a second column advanced east from Lake Ontario. These advances were to be supported by an advance north from New York by Howe. While this plan was approved by Colonial Secretary Lord George Germain, Howe's role was never clearly defined nor was he issued orders from London to aid Burgoyne. As a result, though Burgoyne moved forward, Howe launched his own campaign to capture the American capital at Philadelphia. Left on his own, Burgoyne was defeated in the critical Battle of Saratoga.
Sailing south from New York, Howe moved up the Chesapeake Bay and landed at Head of Elk on August 25, 1777. Moving north into Delaware, his men skirmished with the Americans at Cooch's Bridge on September 3. Pressing on, Howe defeated Washington at the Battle of Brandywineon September 11. Outmaneuvering the Americans, he captured Philadelphia without a fight eleven days later. Concerned about Washington's army, Howe left a small garrison in the city and moved northwest. On October 4, he won a near-run victory at the Battle of Germantown. In the wake of the defeat, Washington retreated into winter quarters at Valley Forge. Having taken the city, Howe also worked to open the Delaware River to British shipping. This saw his men defeated at Red Bank but victorious in the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Under severe criticism in England for failing to crush the Americans and feeling he had lost the king's confidence, Howe requested to be relieved on October 22. After attempting to lure Washington...
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William Howe was born into the Protestant Gentry of Nottinghamshire, England, the third son of Emmanuel Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe and Mary Sophia, the daughter of Sophia Charlotte von Platen-Hallermund the Baroness Kielmansegge and Countess of Darlington, who was a half-sister of King George I. Howe's grandfather Scrope Howe had supported the Whig Revolution of 1688 and King William III. In gratitude, William III raised him to the peerage of first Viscount Howe. This connection with the crown may have improved the careers of all three sons, but all were also very capable officers. William's eldest brother was General George Howe, who was killed at Ticonderoga in 1758, in the French and Indian War. The next brother was Admiral Richard Howe, who joined him in America during the American revolution.
He entered the army when he was seventeen by buying a Cornet's commission in the Duke of Cumberland's Dragoons in 1746. By the next year, he was fighting as a Lieutenant in Flanders as a part of the War of the Austrian Succession. After this war, he joined the 20th Regiment of Foot where he became a friend of James Wolfe, who is remembered mainly for his victory over the French in Canada and establishing British rule there. During the Seven Years' War, Howe's service first brought him to America. The North American chapter of the Seven Years War is known as the French and Indian War. His service in this conflict did much to raise his reputation. William commanded a regiment at the siege of Louisbourg and led a successful amphibious landing. This action carried out under fire won the attackers a flanking position and earned Howe his commander's praise. Howe commanded the light infantry under Major General James Wolfe at the Battle of Quebec, Canada, on September 13, 1759. Wolfe chose...
Major General Howe arrived at Boston on May 15, at the head of the 4,000 additional troops sent to General Thomas Gage. Gage's orders were to clear the American Army and break their Siege of Boston. Howe's plan was to take Cambridge, but the Americans fortified the high ground above the town.
Howe resigned his command in 1778, and, on May 20, Sir Henry Clinton took over as commander-in-chief in North America. He returned to England. In 1782, he was sworn a Privy Counsellor. When his brother, Richard, died in 1799, he inherited the Irish title and became the 5th Viscount Howe. In 1814, he was governor of Plymouth, where he died. He is buried at Holly Road, Garden of rest in Twickenham, England. Howe's professional soldier mentality of not acting too quickly played to the American tactics of hit and run and of quick engagements. Howe and his brother, Richard Howe, were commissioned By King George III to sail to the colonies and either bring peace or prosecute the end of the rebellion. Many of his officers held the fear that Americans would only fight defensively. Howe was known to want a decisive action and wind things up quickly. Because George Washingtonfought the war defensively, much like Roman generals centuries before, Howe was forced to bring the battle to the rebel...
"My going tither was not my seeking. I was ordered, and could not refuse … Every man's private feelings ought to give way to the service of the public" (1775).Buchanan, John. The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. ISBN 9780471441564Gruber, Ira D. The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution. New York: Norton, 1975. ISBN 9780393007565McCullough, David G. 1776. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 9780743226714
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