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  1. William Lyon Mackenzie (12 de marzo, 1795, Dundee, Escocia - 28 de agosto, 1861, Toronto) fue un periodista y agitador político canadiense de origen escocés. Emigró a Canadá en 1820 y se convirtió en comerciante del Alto Canadá (más tarde parte de Ontario ).

  2. William Lyon Mackenzie was born on March 12, 1795, in Dundee, Scotland. Both of his grandfathers were part of Clan Mackenzie and fought for Charles Edward Stuart at the Battle of Culloden. His mother, Elizabeth Chambers (née Mackenzie), a weaver and goat herder, was orphaned at a young age.

    • 14
    • Reform
    • Early Life and Career
    • Political Career
    • Rebellions of 1837
    • Exile
    • Controversy and Legacy

    Mackenzie was raised in Scotland as a secessionist Presbyterianby his widowed mother and ran a general store with her by 1814. After the business went bankrupt Mackenzie appears to have moved to find work, including some time in London, England, where he likely wrote for newspapers. Mackenzie sailed to Canada in 1820 and soon settled in Upper Canada; after a few years in business at Dundas, he moved to Queenston. In May 1824 he published the first issue of the Colonial Advocate, which immediately became a leading voice of the new Reform movement. The Reform movement advocated responsible government and opposed the colonial regime that ruled Upper Canada at the time. As a radical Reformer, Mackenzie admired the American political system rather than the British model. To be closer to the provincial Parliament, Mackenzie moved his operation to York [Toronto] in the fall of 1824. His forthright and forceful manner together with his ardent denunciation of the Family Compactcontributed to...

    Mackenzie's venomous attacks on the local oligarchy brought reprisals in the form of libel suits, threats and physical assaults, as well as an attack on his printing office in 1826, which left his press wrecked and the type thrown into the lake. Mackenzie’s scathing attacks on his opponents also led to his repeated expulsion from the Assembly, although he was continually re-elected by his rural constituents. In 1832 he visited England to present his political supporters' grievances before the imperial government. The sympathetic hearing he received outraged Upper Canadian conservatives. In 1834, when the Reformers won a majority on the newly created Toronto City Council, he was elected its first mayor. At the end of 1834, he was elected to the provincial Parliament again. However, he was defeated at the polls in 1836, and by late fall 1837 an embittered Mackenzie turned his mind to armed revolt.

    On 5 December 1837, convinced that he would gain spontaneous support, he led an erratic expedition down Yonge Street towards Toronto. The rebels planned to march to the house of Lieutenant-Governor Sir Francis Bond Head and perhaps City Hall. However, the plan failed due to disorganized leadership and a lack of discipline. As the force neared Toronto it was dispersed by a few shots from loyalist guards. On 7 December, loyalist troops under Head marched north to Montgomery's Tavern and easily defeated the rebels. Mackenzie fled to the US and attempted to continue the rebellion from Navy Island in the Niagara River. He declared a provisional government and issued a proclamation calling for American-style democratic reform. Canadian militia bombarded the island and sank the rebel supply ship Caroline. Fellow rebels Samuel Lount and Peter Matthewswere captured and executed for treason after pleading guilty to participating in the rebellion.

    Mackenzie moved to New York where he founded Mackenzie's Gazette. However, he was convicted of violation of the US neutrality laws and imprisoned for a year, falling ill and deeper in debt. He spent the next 10 years in the US, eventually finding employment as a correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune. During exile he wrote several books, including The Sons of the Emerald Isle (1844), The Lives and Opinions of Benjamin Franklin Butler and Jesse Hoyt (1845) and The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren(1846). Mackenzie returned to Canada in 1849 following a government pardon. Undaunted, he quickly resumed both his journalistic and his political careers, serving with characteristic energy as MLA for Haldimand until retirement in 1857 and occasionally publishing a political squib, usually entitled Mackenzie's Weekly Message. The fiery and principled Scot died at his home on Bond Street, now one of Toronto's historic sites and museums.

    Mackenzie’s official biography was published by his son-in-law, Charles Lindsey, in 1862. More recently, his legacy has been fraught with controversy, and he has been hailed as both a political failure and a political hero. His critics describe him as an ineffectual mayor, unable to cope with Toronto’s debt or its divided council. Detractors cite his lack of coherent leadership as a fatal flaw. Yet despite the failed rebellion of 1837, Mackenzie helped to define the necessary elements of a democratic society in a fledgling nation. In his 2002 biography of Mackenzie, former Toronto Mayor John Sewell argues that Mackenzie’s radical democratic ideals, including a fair election process, open public discussion of political issues, and the public’s involvement in the democratic process, remain relevant in the 21st century as they encourage greater public participation in politics. However, reports of Mackenzie’s eccentricities, such as his fiery temper, short stature and red wig, have at...

  3. William Lyon Mackenzie King. William Lyon Mackenzie King ( Berlín, Ontario, 17 de diciembre de 1874 - Chelsea, Quebec, 22 de julio de 1950) fue un abogado y político canadiense, primer ministro de Canadá por tres períodos: 1921-1926, 1926-1930 y 1935-1948.

  4. William Lyon Mackenzie, (born March 12, 1795, Springfield, Angus, Scot.—died Aug. 28, 1861, Toronto), Scottish-born journalist and political agitator who led an unsuccessful revolt against the Canadian government in 1837. Mackenzie emigrated from Scotland to Canada in 1820 and became a general merchant.

    • Early Career in Labour and Industrial Relations
    • Prime Minister
    • The Great Depression
    • The Second World War
    • Controversial Beliefs
    • Legacy

    King, the grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie, graduated from the University of Toronto in 1895. He also studied economics at Chicago and Harvard. In 1900, he became Canada's first deputy minister of labour. King’s interest in labour coincided with an expansion in manufacturing and increasing tension within industrial relations. As deputy minister of labour, King acted as conciliator in various strikes. He was the main influence behind the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of 1907; it was a landmark law that delayed strikes or lockouts in public utilities or mines until a conciliation board achieved a settlement or published a report. In 1908, King was elected in North York as a Liberal. In 1909, he entered Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s Cabinetas minister of labour. King was defeated in the 1911 federal election and in the 1917 election, which centred on the issue of conscription. He maintained his connections with the Liberal Party. During the war, he acted as a labour consultant and wa...

    At the 1919 Liberal leadership convention, King was elected as Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s successor. Two years later, the Liberals won a slim majority in the federal election; King became prime minister. He set out to regain the confidence of the farmers in Ontario and Western Canada who had supported the new Progressive Party; but his reductions in tariffs and freight rates were not enough. After the 1925 election, the Liberals could stay in office only with Progressive support. (See Elections of 1925 and 1926.) During the first session of the new Parliament, it became clear that the Progressives would withdraw their support because of a scandal in the Department of Customs. King therefore asked Governor General Viscount Byng to dissolve Parliament. However, Byng refused and called on Arthur Meighen to form a Conservative government; however, it was defeated in the House of Commons a few days later. (See King-Byng Affair.) In the 1926 election, King stressed the alleged unconstitutional...

    Despite King’s background in economics, he was reluctant to acknowledge the scale of the economic crisis in the 1930s. He did not even note the stock market crash of 1929 in his personal diary. King did not believe at first that the Depression would seriously affect Canada. He refused to provide federal funding to provinces struggling with unemployment. In contrast, the Conservatives under R.B. Bennettpromised aggressive action. As a result, the Liberals were soundly defeated in the 1930 election. King was an effective Opposition leader. He kept his party united as he attacked Bennett for unfulfilled promises and rising unemployment and deficits. King’s only alternative policy, however, was to reduce trade barriers. Bennett’s policies included work camps, the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act, the Canadian Wheat Board, and what was known as Bennett’s New Deal. They all failed to adequately address the country’s problems. In 1935, the Liberal Party campaigned on the slogan “King or Cha...

    Developments abroad, from the Ethiopian crisis to the Munich crisis, forced King to pay more attention to international affairs. (See also Global Affairs Canada.) He hoped that war with Germany could be averted through appeasement. Like many other leaders of the time, King was impressed by Hitler when the two met in Berlin, Germany, on 29 June 1937. He wrote in his diary that Hitler “is really one who truly loves his fellow man.” Although they discussed many topics, King did not bring up the Nazi party’s anti-Jewish policies during the meeting. There was widespread discrimination against Jews even in Canada. The country’s immigration policy at the time was influenced by anti-Semitic views. (See also MS St. Louis.) When they met in June 1937, Hitler reassured King that Germany had no desire for war. Events quickly revealed Germany’s true intentions, however, and King’s hopes of avoiding another war were dashed. As the likelihood of war increased, King insisted that the Canadian Parli...

    Mackenzie King’s political achievements have often been overshadowed by the revelation that this apparently proper and colourless man was a spiritualist; he frequently sought contact with his dead mother and with other deceased relatives and friends. King kept a detailed personal diary for much of his life. This diary was transcribed and published in a series of volumes edited by Pickersgill and Forster; it has provided biographers and historians with fascinating insight into King’s beliefs and his personal and spiritual life. The publication of C.P. Stacey’s A Very Double Life in 1976 led to intense speculation about King’s sexual and spiritual life. He was presented as leading an almost Jekyll-and-Hyde existence. However, Allan Levine argues in King: William Lyon Mackenzie King: A Life Guided by the Hand of Destiny(2011) that King’s eccentricities in fact informed his political decisions, and that King’s faith and spirituality were an integral part of his personality.

    Mackenzie King has continued to intrigue Canadians. Critics argue that his political longevity was achieved by evasions and indecision, and that he failed to provide creative leadership. His defenders argue that he gradually changed Canada, a difficult country to govern, while keeping the nation united. See also Mackenzie King: The Alchemist; Timeline: Elections and Prime Ministers.

  5. 06/01/2022 · Jan 6-14: Grad Photo Day! Dec 17, 2021. Grad Photo Day is running from January 6 -14th. All sessions will take place in the cafeteria. Virtual students will have an opportunity to reserve times from 3:30-4:00pm. All grade 12 students must book their appointment online.

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