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  1. William Pitt (apodado el Joven) (28 de mayo de 1759- 23 de enero de 1806), fue un político y estadista británico, primer ministro del Reino Unido en dos períodos por un total de dos décadas, además de la persona más joven en ocupar dicho cargo de premier británico.

  2. William Pitt (el Viejo) (Lord Chatham), primer ministro de Gran Bretaña entre 1766 y 1768. William Pitt (el Joven), primer ministro de Gran Bretaña entre 1783 y 1801 y de 1804 a 1806. Hijo de William Pitt (el Viejo). William Pitt Amherst, gobernador británico de la India.

  3. William Pitt el Joven. Nombrado ministro de Economía (1782), al año siguiente el rey Jorge III lo llamó a formar gobierno. Como primer ministro del Reino Unido, durante su pimer mandato (1783-1801) debió enfrentarse al déficit que la guerra colonial contra los norteamericanos había provocado en la hacienda británica.

    • Privileged Upbringing Leads to A Career in Politics
    • Pitt Guides Britain Through The French and Indian War
    • Reversing The Momentum of The War
    • Hampered by Failing Health
    • For More Information

    William Pitt was born on November 15, 1708. His parents were Robert Pitt, a member of the British Parliament, and Lady Harriet Villiers, whose family was of English-Irish nobility. Young Pitt was raised in very comfortable surroundings and studied at England's finest schools. He attended school at Eton from 1719 to 1726, then moved on to Oxford and Utrecht in 1727. He suffered from a variety of illnesses as ayoungster, so he rarely participated in the outdoor and sports activities that were popular with other boys his age. But he was an intelligent and curious youngster who filled his days with literature, art, and music. In 1735, Pitt followed in the footsteps of his grandfather and father, taking a seat as a member of the Parliament, the supreme legislative body of the country. All across Great Britain, no laws or taxes could be approved without the formal agreement of the Parliament. In addition, only members of Parliament were eligible to serve as the prime minister or fill othe...

    Even as Pitt's political career flourished in the early 1750s, relations between Great Britain and France became dangerously tense. Since the late seventeenth century, these two European powers had repeatedly clashed for economic,military, and political supremacy around the world. In 1754, this struggle erupted once again in North Americawith the French and Indian War. By the 1750s, both Great Britain and France had established large colonies (permanent settlements of citizens who maintain ties to the mother country) throughout the eastern half of North America. The British colonies, known as America, stretched along the Atlantic Ocean from present-day Maine to Georgia. The French colonies, known as New France, included eastern Canada, parts of the Great Lakes region, and the Mississippi River basin. Both the British and French hoped to expand their land holdings into the Ohio Country, a vast wilderness that lay between their colonies. This region offered access to valuable natural...

    But Pitt quickly reversed the falling fortunes of the British Empire. He spoke with such great confidence and determination that he was able to renew Britain's commitment to the war. Indeed, his appeals to national pride inspired the English people. In addition, he proved to be an effective planner of military and naval strategy. He also used his authority to make sure the military received the best possible leadership. For example, he promoted and removed commanders based on their talent, skill, and bravery rather than their years of service in the military or family connections. Finally, he worked very hard to improve relations with the American colonists. During the first years of the French and Indian War, British generals and law-makers had treated the Americans poorly. But Pitt behaved as if they were equals, and he listened to their wartime complaints and suggestions respectfully. As a result, support for the war increased dramatically throughout the colonies. Under Pitt's le...

    Pitt struggled with a range of health problems through the early 1760s. He spent most of this time at his country estate in Bath, England. Every once in a while, hewould travel to London, where his public proclamations on government policies continued to attract attention. For example, he repeatedly expressed his opposition to imposing taxes on the American colonies since they were not represented in the British Parliament. He believed that this "taxation without representation" was illegal, according to British law. At the same time, however, he made it very clear that he considered the colonies a part of the British Empire. In August 1766, the collapse of the current administration in England led to Pitt's reappointment as prime minister. But illness kept him away from office for months at a time, and political battles and scheming made it impossible for him to forge an effective government. Weary and sick, he stepped down from office in November 1768. By 1771, Pitt made only rare...

    Black, Jeremy. Pitt the Elder. New York: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1992. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Historic World Leaders. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Detroit:Gale Group, 2002. Peters, Marie. Pitt and Popularity: The Patriot Minister and London Opinion During the Seven Years War. New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 1980.

  4. William Pitt, I Conde de Chatham (Londres, 15 de noviembre de 1708 - Hayes, Bromley, Londres, 11 de mayo de 1778), apodado el Viejo para distinguirlo de su hijo, conocido como William Pitt "el Joven", fue un político británico. Era nieto de Thomas Pitt. Biografía. Defendió la formación de un Imperio británico en ultramar.

    • Early Life and Education
    • Early Political Career
    • Rise to Power
    • First Government
    • French Revolution
    • Resignation
    • Second Government
    • Death
    • Personal Life
    • Legacy

    William Pitt, the second son of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was born on 28 May 1759 at Hayes Place in the village of Hayes, Kent. He was from a political family on both sides, as his mother, Hester Grenville, was sister to former prime minister George Grenville. According to biographer John Ehrman, Pitt inherited brilliance and dynamism from his father's line, and a determined, methodical nature from the Grenvilles. Suffering from occasional poor health as a boy, he was educated at home by the Reverend Edward Wilson. An intelligent child, Pitt quickly became proficient in Latin and Greek. He was admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge, on 26 April 1773, a month before turning fourteen. He studied political philosophy, classics, mathematics, trigonometry, chemistry and history. At Cambridge, Pitt was tutored by George Pretyman, who became a close personal friend. Pitt later appointed Pretyman Bishop of Lincoln, then Winchester, and drew upon his advice throughout his political...

    During the general elections of September 1780, at the age of 21, Pitt contested the University of Cambridge seat, but lost. Still intent on entering Parliament, Pitt secured the patronage of James Lowther, later 1st Earl Lowther, with the help of his university friend, Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland. Lowther effectively controlled the pocket borough of Appleby; a by-election in that constituency sent Pitt to the House of Commons in January 1781. Pitt's entry into parliament is somewhat ironic as he later railed against the very same pocket and rotten boroughsthat had given him his seat. In Parliament, the youthful Pitt cast aside his tendency to be withdrawn in public, emerging as a noted debater right from his maiden speech. Pitt originally aligned himself with prominent Whigs such as Charles James Fox. With the Whigs, Pitt denounced the continuation of the American War of Independence, as his father strongly had. Instead he proposed that the prime minister, Lord North, make...

    The Fox-North Coalition fell in December 1783, after Fox had introduced Edmund Burke's bill to reform the East India Company to gain the patronage he so greatly lacked while the King refused to support him. Fox stated the bill was necessary to save the company from bankruptcy. Pitt responded that: "Necessity is the plea for every infringement of human freedom. It is the argument of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves." The King was opposed to the bill; when it passed in the House of Commons, he secured its defeat in the House of Lordsby threatening to regard anyone who voted for it as his enemy. Following the bill's failure in the Upper House, George III dismissed the coalition government and finally entrusted the premiership to William Pitt, after having offered the position to him three times previously. A constitutional crisis arose when the King dismissed the Fox-North coalition government and named Pitt to replace it. Though faced with a hostile majority in Parliament, Pitt was...

    India

    His administration secure, Pitt could begin to enact his agenda. His first major piece of legislation as prime minister was the India Act 1784, which re-organised the British East India Company and kept a watch over corruption. The India Act created a new Board of Control to oversee the affairs of the East India Company. It differed from Fox's failed India Bill 1783 and specified that the board would be appointed by the king. Pitt was appointed, along with Lord Sydney, who was appointed Presi...

    Parliamentary reform

    In domestic politics, Pitt concerned himself with the cause of parliamentary reform. In 1785, he introduced a bill to remove the representation of thirty-six rotten boroughs, and to extend, in a small way, the electoral franchise to more individuals. Pitt's support for the bill, however, was not strong enough to prevent its defeat in the House of Commons.The bill of 1785 was the last parliamentary reform proposal introduced by Pitt to British legislators.

    Australian penal colony

    Convicts were originally transported to the Thirteen Colonies in North America, but after the American War of Independence ended in 1783, the newly formed United States refused to accept further convicts. Pitt's government took the decision to settle what is now Australia and found the penal colony in August 1786. The First Fleet of 11 vessels carried over a thousand settlers, including 778 convicts. The Colony of New South Wales was formally proclaimed by Governor Arthur Phillipon 7 February...

    An early favourable response to the French Revolution encouraged many in Great Britain to reopen the issue of parliamentary reform, which had been dormant since Pitt's reform bill was defeated in 1785. The reformers, however, were quickly labelled as radicals and associates of the French revolutionaries. Subsequently, in 1794, Pitt's administration tried three of them for treason but lost. Parliament began to enact repressive legislation in order to silence the reformers. Individuals who published seditious material were punished, and, in 1794, the writ of habeas corpus was suspended. Other repressive measures included the Seditious Meetings Act, which restricted the right of individuals to assemble publicly, and the Combination Acts, which restricted the formation of societies or organisations that favoured political reforms. Problems manning the Royal Navy also led to Pitt to introduce the Quota System in 1795 in addition to the existing system of impressment.[incomplete short cit...

    Following the Acts of Union 1800, Pitt sought to inaugurate the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by granting concessions to Roman Catholics, who formed a 75% majority of the population in Ireland, by abolishing various political restrictions under which they suffered. The king was strongly opposed to Catholic Emancipation; he argued that to grant additional liberty would violate his coronation oath, in which he had promised to protect the established Church of England. Pitt, unable to change the king's strong views, resigned on 16 February 1801, so as to allow Henry Addington, his political friend, to form a new administration. At about the same time, however, the king suffered a renewed bout of madness, with the consequence that Addington could not receive his formal appointment. Though he had resigned, Pitt temporarily continued to discharge his duties; on 18 February 1801, he brought forward the annual budget. Power was transferred from Pitt to Addington on 14 Marc...

    Pitt returned to the premiership on 10 May 1804. He had originally planned to form a broad coalition government, but faced the opposition of George III to the inclusion of Fox. Moreover, many of Pitt's former supporters, including the allies of Addington, joined the Opposition. Thus, Pitt's second ministry was considerably weaker than his first. The British government began placing pressure on the French Emperor, Napoleon I. Thanks to Pitt's efforts, Britain joined the Third Coalition, an alliance that included Austria, Russia, and Sweden. In October 1805, the British Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, won a crushing victory in the Battle of Trafalgar, ensuring British naval supremacy for the remainder of the war. At the annual Lord Mayor's Banquet toasting him as "the Saviour of Europe", Pitt responded in a few words that became the most famous speech of his life: 1. I return you many thanks for the honour you have done me; but Europe is not to be saved by any single man....

    The setbacks took a toll on Pitt's health. He had long suffered from poor health, beginning in childhood, and was plagued with gout and "biliousness", which was worsened by a fondness for port that began when he was advised to consume it to deal with his chronic ill-health. On 23 January 1806, Pitt died at Bowling Green House on Putney Heath, probably from peptic ulceration of his stomach or duodenum; he was unmarried and left no children. Pitt's debts amounted to £40,000 when he died, but Parliament agreed to pay them on his behalf. A motion was made to honour him with a public funeral and a monument; it passed despite some opposition. Pitt's body was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22 February, having lain in state for two days in the Palace of Westminster. Pitt was succeeded as Prime Minister by his first cousin William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, who headed the Ministry of All the Talents, a coalition which included Charles James Fox.

    Pitt became known as a "three-bottle man" in reference to his heavy consumption of port wine. Each of these bottles would be around 350 millilitres (12 US fl oz) in volume. At one point rumours emerged of an intended marriage to Eleanor Eden, to whom Pitt had grown close. Pitt broke off the potential marriage in 1797, writing to her father, Lord Auckland, "I am compelled to say that I find the obstacles to it decisive and insurmountable". Of his social relationships, biographer William Haguewrites:

    William Pitt the Younger was a prime minister who consolidated the powers of his office. Though he was sometimes opposed by members of his Cabinet, he helped define the role of the Prime Minister as the supervisor and co-ordinator of the various government departments. After his death the conservatives embraced him as a great patriotic hero. One of Pitt's accomplishments was a rehabilitation of the nation's finances after the American War of Independence. Pitt helped manage[how?]the mounting national debt, and made changes to the tax system in order to improve its great capture of revenue. Some of Pitt's domestic plans were not successful; he failed to secure parliamentary reform, emancipation, or the abolition of the slave trade although this last took place with the Slave Trade Act 1807, the year after his death. The 1792 Slave Trade Bill passed the House of Commons mangled and mutilated by the modifications and amendments of Pitt, it lay for years, in the House of Lords. Biograph...

    • British
    • Tory
  5. William Pitt, the Younger, British prime minister (1783–1801, 1804–06) during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. He had considerable influence in strengthening the office of the prime minister. William Pitt was the second son of William Pitt, 1st earl of Chatham, a famous statesman of

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