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  1. 01/01/2014 · This chapter is concerned primarily with the educational roles and academic contributions of programs in history and philosophy of science (hereafter HPS) in Australasia. It focuses mainly on those...

    • Logical Positivism and The Vienna Circle
    • Karl Popper and Falsificationism
    • Imre Lakatos
    • Thomas Kuhn
    • Paul Feyerabend

    The Vienna Circle – a group of philosophers who met in that city in the 1920s and 30s – went further than Comte. They said that a statement was only meaningful if it had the potential to be verified. They believed that this was the dividing line between scientific and non-scientific statements and between sense and nonsense. A proposition that coul...

    Karl Popper spotted a fundamental flaw in verificationism. Take for instance the proposition that “all swans are white.” Popper pointed out that however many times you observe white swans, you can never conclusively say you have proved the proposition, because there is always the possibility that the nextswan you see will be some other colour. A si...

    One attempt to modify Popper’s ideas to take this into account was by Imre Lakatos, a Hungarian emigré who taught at the London School of Economics. He described his ideas in The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. According to Lakatos, the basic unit of science is the ‘research programme’ – examples would be Newtonian science and quantu...

    While Lakatos basically tried to improve Popper’s falsificationism, Thomas Kuhn turned his back on Popper altogether. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn said that scientific revolutions occur which are primarily sociological events. When a whole new set of ideas (or new ‘paradigm’ as Kuhn called it) takes hold, adherents of t...

    Finally, Paul Feyerabend (1924-94) thought that scientific observation statements themselves always, necessarily, embody a theory, and argued for ‘democratic’ control of science…

  2. 25/06/2014 · This chapter is concerned primarily with the educational roles and academic contributions of programs in history and philosophy of science (hereafter HPS) in Australasia. It focuses mainly on those that are most relevant to the overall project of writing a history of philosophy in Australasia.

  3. Philosophy of science emerged as a distinctive part of philosophy in the twentieth century. Its defining moment was the meeting (and clash) of two courses of events: the breakdown of the Kantian philosophical tradition and the crisis in the sciences and mathematics in the beginning of the century.

  4. 23/09/2020 · This is why scientists are now forced to broaden their scope; to defend not just their results or their thesis, but their subject itself, through the study of the History and Philosophy of Science. 53

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