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  1. Jorge VI del Reino Unido. fue rey del Reino Unido y sus dominios de ultramar desde el 11 de diciembre de 1936 hasta su muerte en 1952. Fue el último emperador de la India (hasta el 15 de agosto de 1947 ), y el primer jefe de la Mancomunidad de Naciones. no estaba previsto que heredara el trono tras la muerte de su padre.

    • María de Teck

      María de Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline...

    • Isabel Bowes-Lyon

      Isabel Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; Londres, 4...

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_VIGeorge VI - Wikipedia

    • Early Life
    • Military Career and Education
    • Marriage
    • Reluctant King
    • Early Reign
    • Second World War
    • Empire to Commonwealth
    • Illness and Death
    • Legacy
    • References

    The future George VI was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. His father was Prince George, Duke of York (later King George V), the second and eldest surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), was the eldest child and only daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck, and Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck. His birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days later, he wrote again: "I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albertto her." The Queen was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, and wrote to the Duchess of...

    From 1909, Albert attended the Royal Naval College, Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.When his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, his father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada. He was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913. He spent three months in the Mediterranean, but never overcame his seasickness. Three weeks after the outbreak of World War I he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen, where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch. He was mentioned in despatches for his actions as a turret officer aboard Collingwood in the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916), the great naval battle of the war. He did not see further comb...

    In a time when royalty were expected to marry fellow royalty, it was unusual that Albert had a great deal of freedom in choosing a prospective wife. An infatuation with the already-married Australian socialite Lady Loughborough came to an end in April 1920 when the King, with the promise of the dukedom of York, persuaded Albert to stop seeing her. That year, he met for the first time since childhood Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the youngest daughter of the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. He became determined to marry her. She rejected his proposal twice, in 1921 and 1922, reportedly because she was reluctant to make the sacrifices necessary to become a member of the royal family. In the words of her mother Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Albert would be "made or marred" by his choice of wife. After a protracted courtship, Elizabeth agreed to marry him. They were married on 26 April 1923 in Westminster Abbey. Albert's marriage to someone not of royal birth w...

    King George V had severe reservations about Prince Edward, saying "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself in twelve months" and "I pray God that my eldest son will never marry and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." On 20 January 1936, George V died and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. In the Vigil of the Princes, Prince Albert and his three brothers (the new king, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Prince George, Duke of Kent) took a shift standing guard over their father's body as it lay in state, in a closed casket, in Westminster Hall. As Edward was unmarried and had no children, Albert was the heir presumptive to the throne. Less than a year later, on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated in order to marry Wallis Simpson who was divorced from her first husband and divorcing her second. Edward had been advised by British prime minister Stanley Baldwin that he could not remain king and marry a divorced woman with two living ex-hus...

    Albert assumed the regnal name "George VI" to emphasise continuity with his father and restore confidence in the monarchy. The beginning of George VI's reign was taken up by questions surrounding his predecessor and brother, whose titles, style and position were uncertain. He had been introduced as "His Royal Highness Prince Edward" for the abdication broadcast, but George VI felt that by abdicating and renouncing the succession, Edward had lost the right to bear royal titles, including "Royal Highness". In settling the issue, George's first act as king was to confer upon his brother the title "Duke of Windsor" with the style "Royal Highness", but the letters patent creating the dukedom prevented any wife or children from bearing royal styles. George VI was forced to buy from Edward the royal residences of Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House, as these were private properties and did not pass to him automatically. Three days after his accession, on his 41st birthday, he invested hi...

    Following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the United Kingdom and the self-governing Dominions other than Ireland declared war on Nazi Germany. George VI and his wife resolved to stay in London, despite German bombing raids. They officially stayed in Buckingham Palace throughout the war, although they usually spent nights at Windsor Castle. The first night of the Blitz on London, on 7 September 1940, killed about one thousand civilians, mostly in the East End. On 13 September, the King and Queen narrowly avoided death when two German bombs exploded in a courtyard at Buckingham Palace while they were there. In defiance, the Queen declared: "I am glad we have been bombed. It makes me feel we can look the East End in the face." The royal family were portrayed as sharing the same dangers and deprivations as the rest of the country. They were subject to British rationing restrictions, and U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt remarked on the rationed food served and the limit...

    George VI's reign saw the acceleration of the dissolution of the British Empire. The Statute of Westminster 1931 had already acknowledged the evolution of the Dominions into separate sovereign states. The process of transformation from an empire to a voluntary association of independent states, known as the Commonwealth, gathered pace after the Second World War. During the ministry of Clement Attlee, British India became the two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947. George relinquished the title of Emperor of India, and became King of India and King of Pakistan instead. In late April 1949, the Commonwealth leaders issued the London Declaration, which laid the foundation of the modern Commonwealth and recognised the King as Head of the Commonwealth. In January 1950, he ceased to be King of India when it became a republic, and remained King of Pakistan until his death. Other countries left the Commonwealth, such as Burma in January 1948, Palestine (divided betwee...

    The stress of the war had taken its toll on the King's health, made worse by his heavy smoking and subsequent development of lung cancer among other ailments, including arteriosclerosis and Buerger's disease. A planned tour of Australia and New Zealand was postponed after the King suffered an arterial blockage in his right leg, which threatened the loss of the leg and was treated with a right lumbar sympathectomy in March 1949. His elder daughter Elizabeth, the heir presumptive, took on more royal duties as her father's health deteriorated. The delayed tour was re-organised, with Elizabeth and her husband, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, taking the place of the King and Queen. The King was well enough to open the Festival of Britain in May 1951, but on 23 September 1951, he underwent a surgical operation where his entire left lung was removed by Clement Price Thomas after a malignant tumour was found. In October 1951, Elizabeth and Philip went on a month-long tour of Canada; the trip had...

    In the words of Labour Member of Parliament (MP) George Hardie, the abdication crisis of 1936 did "more for republicanism than fifty years of propaganda". George VI wrote to his brother Edward that in the aftermath of the abdication he had reluctantly assumed "a rocking throne" and tried "to make it steady again".He became king at a point when public faith in the monarchy was at a low ebb. During his reign, his people endured the hardships of war, and imperial power was eroded. However, as a dutiful family man and by showing personal courage, he succeeded in restoring the popularity of the monarchy. The George Cross and the George Medal were founded at the King's suggestion during the Second World War to recognise acts of exceptional civilian bravery. He bestowed the George Cross on the entire "island fortress of Malta" in 1943. He was posthumously awarded the Ordre de la Libérationby the French government in 1960, one of only two people (the other being Churchill in 1958) to be awa...

    Sources

    1. Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79667-1. 2. Howarth, Patrick (1987). George VI. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-171000-2. 3. Judd, Denis (1982). King George VI. London: Michael Joseph. ISBN 978-0-7181-2184-6. 4. Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). "George VI (1895–1952)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 5. Rhodes James, Robert (1998). A Spirit Undaunted: The Political Role of George VI. London: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-64765-6. 6...

    • 11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952
    • Mary of Teck
  3. La coronación del rey Jorge VI y la reina Isabel Bowes-Lyon como monarcas del Reino Unido, de los dominios de la Mancomunidad Británica y como Emperadores de la India tuvo lugar en Abadía de Westminster en Londres, el 12 de mayo de 1937. Jorge VI ascendió al trono luego de la abdicación de su hermano Eduardo VIII, el 11 de diciembre de ...

    • Biografia
    • Reinado
    • Doença E Morte
    • Legado
    • títulos, Estilos E Armas
    • Nota

    Infância e juventude

    Jorge VI nasceu no York Cottage, em Sandringham House, durante o reinado de sua bisavó, a rainha Vitória.[1][2] Seu pai era o príncipe Jorge, duque de Iorque (futuro Jorge V), segundo filho e herdeiro dos príncipes de Gales (futuros rei Eduardo VII e rainha Alexandra). Sua mãe era a duquesa de Iorque (futura rainha Maria), filha mais velha do duque e da duquesa de Teck.[3] Seu nascimento, em 14 de dezembro de 1895, ocorrera em pleno aniversário da morte de seu bisavô, o príncipe consorte Albe...

    Educação e carreira militar

    Em 1909, Alberto ingressou como cadete na Royal Naval College de Osborne. Em 1911, apesar de suas notas nos exames finais ficarem abaixo da média de sua turma, ele foi promovido para o Britannia Royal Naval College, em Dartmouth.[15][16][17] Com a morte de Eduardo VII em 1910, o pai de Alberto assumiu o trono, como Jorge V, e seu irmão mais velho tornou-se príncipe de Gales, fazendo com que Alberto se tornasse o segundo na linha de sucessão ao trono.[18] Alberto passou os seis primeiros meses...

    Casamento

    Numa época em que era hábito membros da realeza desposarem seus pares, era incomum que Alberto tivesse tanta liberdade para escolher sua futura esposa. Em 1920, o príncipe reencontrou a jovem lady Isabel Bowes-Lyon (a quem não via desde a infância), filha mais nova do conde e da condessa de Strathmore e Kinghorne. Alberto estava determinado a desposá-la,[37][38] mas a pretendente recusou duas vezes suas propostas (em 1921 e 1922) - alegadamente por sua relutância em submeter-se aos sacrifício...

    Rei relutante

    Jorge V tinha sérias reservas em relação ao príncipe Eduardo e chegou a declarar: "Peço a Deus que meu filho mais velho nunca se case e que nada fique entre Bertie e Lilibet e o trono".[57] Com sua morte, em 20 de janeiro de 1936, o então príncipe de Gales ascendeu ao trono como Eduardo VIII. No Westminster Hall, durante a Vigília dos Príncipes, Alberto e seus três irmãos revezaram-se nas extremidades do catafalco onde o caixão fechado do pai foi depositado.[58][59] Como Eduardo era solteiro...

    Início do reinado

    Alberto assumiu o título de "Jorge VI", para enfatizar a continuidade do legado de seu pai e restaurar a confiança na monarquia.[65][66] O início de seu reinado foi tomado por questões relativas ao seu antecessor e irmão, cujos títulos, tratamento e posição eram incertos. Na transmissão radiofônica da abdicação ele foi mencionado como "Sua Alteza Real o Príncipe Eduardo",[67][68] mas Jorge VI entendia que, ao abdicar e renunciar à sucessão, Eduardo havia perdido o direito de portar títulos re...

    Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Em setembro de 1939, a Grã-Bretanha e os Domínios autônomos, com exceção do Estado Livre Irlandês, declararam guerra à Alemanha nazista.[90][91] Jorge VI e sua esposa resolveram ficar em Londres, apesar dos bombardeios alemães. Eles permaneceram oficialmente Palácio de Buckingham durante toda a guerra, embora geralmente passassem as noites no Castelo de Windsor.[92][93] O primeiro ataque alemão a Londres, em 7 de setembro de 1940, matou cerca de mil civis, a maioria na área do East End.[94] E...

    O estresse da guerra acabou por afetar a saúde do rei,[118][119][120] exacerbado pelo pesado tabagismo[121] e o subsequente desenvolvimento de um câncer de pulmão, entre outras doenças, incluindo a aterosclerose. Com o agravamento de seu estado de saúde a princesa Isabel, sua herdeira presuntiva, passou a assumir mais deveres reais. Uma viagem planejada à Austrália e Nova Zelândia foi adiada após o rei sofrer uma oclusão arterial na perna direita - que o obrigou a passar por uma cirurgia em março de 1949 -,[122] sendo reorganizada com a princesa Isabel e seu marido, o duque de Edimburgo, viajando no lugar do rei e da rainha. Jorge estava bem o suficiente para abrir o Festival of Britain em maio de 1951, mas a 23 de setembro ele teve que ser submetido a uma pneumonectomia, devido ao tumor maligno em seu pulmão esquerdo.[123][124] Em novembro, na cerimônia de abertura do Parlamento, a fala do trono foi lida pelo lord chancellor Gavin Simonds.[125] Sua mensagem de Natal de 1951 foi gra...

    Nas palavras do político trabalhista George Hardie, a crise de abdicação de 1936 fez "mais para o republicanismo do que cinqüenta anos de propaganda".[132] Jorge VI escreveu a seu irmão Eduardo que, na sequência da abdicação, ele relutantemente assumido "um trono de balanço", e tentou "torná-lo estável novamente".[133] Ele tornou-se rei num ponto em que a fé pública na monarquia estava em baixa. Durante o seu reinado, seu povo sofreu as agruras da guerra e poder imperial foi corroído. No entanto, como um zeloso pai de família e demonstrando coragem pessoal, ele conseguiu restaurar a popularidade da monarquia.[134][135] A Cruz de Jorge e a Medalha de Jorge foram criadas por sugestão do rei durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, para reconhecer atos de excepcional bravura civil.[136][137] Ele concedeu a Cruz de Jorge à toda a "ilha fortaleza de Malta", em 1943.[138] Em 1960 o governo francês concedeu-lhe postumamente a Ordre de la Libération, sendo a única pessoa (com exceção de Churchill)...

    Títulos e estilos

    1. 14 de dezembro de 1895 – 28 de maio de 1898: Sua Alteza, o Príncipe Alberto de Iorque 2. 28 de maio de 1898 – 22 de janeiro de 1901: Sua Alteza Real, o Príncipe Alberto de Iorque 3. 9 de novembro de 1901 – 6 de maio de 1910: Sua Alteza Real, o Príncipe Alberto de Gales 4. 6 de maio de 1910 – 4 de junho de 1920: Sua Alteza Real, o Príncipe Alberto 5. 4 de junho de 1920 – 11 de dezembro de 1936: Sua Alteza Real, o Duque de Iorque 6. 11 de dezembro de 1936 – 6 de fevereiro de 1952: Sua Majest...

    Armas

    Como duque de Iorque, Jorge portava as armas reais do Reino Unido, diferenciadas por um lambel de argent de três pés, sendo o ponto central com uma âncora azure - diferenciação anteriormente concedida a seu pai, Jorge V, quando ele foi duque de Iorque, e posteriormente concedido ao seu neto, André. Como rei, ele portava as armas reais sem diferenciação.[148]

    Este artigo foi inicialmente traduzido do artigo da Wikipédia em inglês, cujo título é «George VI», especificamente desta versão.

    • Portraits
    • Gallery
    • Monuments
    • Insignia
    The Duke of York, 1931, by Philip Alexius de László
    formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946
    circa 1942
    with Queen Elizabeth (The Queen Mother)
    George VI, as King of Canada with Elizabeth at the Canadian Senate, 1939.
    King and Queen of Canada 1939
    In Canada
    Statue by William McMillan(1955) at Carlton House Terrace, London
    Monument in Hongkong (1)
    (2)
    (3)
    Coat of arms of Prince Albert, Duke of York, used before his ascension to the throne.
    Coat of arms of King George VI in Right of the United Kingdom
    Coat of arms of King George VI in Right of the United Kingdom (in Scotland)
    Royal Cypher of the King (George Rex)
  4. Jorge VI del Reino Unido (Albert Frederick Arthur George, York Cottage, 14 de diciembre de 1895-Sandringham House, 6 de febrero de 1952)[1] fue rey del Reino Unido y sus dominios de ultramar desde el 11 de diciembre de 1936 hasta su muerte en 1952.[2]