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  1. Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) | IAS Abhiyan Lord Wellesley (as Governor General) came to India in 1798 at a time when the British were locked in a life and death struggle with France all over the world. Lord Wellesley decided that the time was ripe for bringing as many Indian states as possible under British control.

    • Administrative Plans of Wellesley
    • Subsidiary Alliance
    • Chiefs of Maratha Empire
    To achieve his political aims, Wellesley relied on three methods i.e.
    The doctrine of subsidiary alliance was introduced by Lord Wellesley.
    Under the subsidiary alliance system, the ruler of the allying Indian State was compelled to accept the permanent stationing of a British force within his territory and to pay a subsidy for its mai...
    In reality, by signing a Subsidiary Alliance, an India state virtually signed away−
    As a consequence of Subsidiary Alliance, lakhs of soldiers and officers were deprived of their hereditary livelihood, spreading misery and degradation in the country.
    Many of the unemployed soldiers joined the roaming bands of Pindarees which were to ravage the whole of India during the first two decades of the 19thcentury.
    The Subsidiary Alliance system was, on the other hand, extremely advantageous to the British. They could now maintain a large army at the cost of the Indian states.
    The Maratha Empire (during the Wellesley time) consisted of a confederacy of five big chiefs, namely −
    The Peshwa was the nominal head of the confederacy.
    Unfortunately, the Marathas lost nearly all of their wise and experienced leaders towards the close of the 18thcentury.
    Mahadji Sindhia, Tukoji Holker, Ahilya Bai Holker, Peshwa Madhav Rao II, and Nana Phadnavis, the people who had kept the Maratha confederacy together for the last 30 years, all were dead by the yea...
    • Lord Wellesley - Background
    • Significant Events Under Lord Wellesley
    • Legacy of Lord Wellesley
    • Conclusion
    • Mcqs
    Richard Colley Wellesleywas an Anglo-Irish politician and colonial administrator.
    He was Viscount Wellesleyuntil 1781 when he succeeded his father as the 2nd Earl of Mornington.
    In 1799, he was elevated to the Irish peerage as Marquess Wellesley.
    Between 1798 and 1805, he was the fifth Governor-General of India, and he later served as Foreign Secretary in the British Cabinet and as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

    Fourth Mysore War

    1. The third Mysore war, fought during Lord Cornwallis' governor-generalship, severely weakened Tipu Sultan's power. 2. He did not forget his defeat and humiliation and worked hard to regain his power and prestige. 3. He increased his military resources and attempted to enlist foreign assistance from Arabia, Turkey, Afghanistan, and France. 4. Lord Wellesley decided to end Tipu Sultan's reign as soon as he arrived in India. He began talks with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas and was a...

    Second Maratha War

    1. Internal squabbles among the Marathas provided Lord Wellesley with an excellent opportunity to weaken the Marathas' power. 2. Peshwa Baji Raowas inept and failed to maintain control over Maratha chiefs. 3. Daulat Rao Sindhia and Jaswant Rao Holkarfought openly for supremacy. 4. The Peshwa sided with the Sindhia, and a virtual war broke out between Holkar on one side and the Peshwa and the Sindhia on the other. 5. In October 1802, Jaswant Rao defeated Peshwa Baji Rao in a battle near Poona,...

    Mediatization

    1. Mediatization is another method by which Wellesley expanded the Company's territory. 2. On the grounds of maladministration by their rulers, he took over the territories of Tanjore, Surat, and Karnataka, as well as Farrukhabad, whose ruler was a minor. 3. The Company, on the other hand, provided pensions to the rulers of these states.

    Lord Wellesley's adventures were enjoyable, but they were costly.
    The continuous wars with Mysore and the Marathas, as well as his policy of launching educational projects in India, put financial strain on the Court of Directors, making them impatient.
    In July 1805, he was recalled, and Lord Cornwallis was dispatched to India once more.
    His peers advised him to bring peace to the British dominions, which were under threat from wounded lions like Holkars and Scindias.

    Lord Wellesley pursued an aggressive policy with native rulers and was largely successful in his goal of establishing the Company as the supreme power in India. Sir George Barlow, a close friend of John Shore and Lord Wellesley, succeeded him. His term lasted until 1807 when a mutiny broke out in Vellore in 1806.

    Question: Which one of the following statements does not apply to the system of Subsidiary Alliance introduced by Lord Wellesley? (UPSC 2018) (a) To maintain a large standing army at others' expense (b) To keep India safe from Napoleonic danger (c) To secure a fixed income for the Company (d) To establish British paramountcy over the Indian States ...

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  3. www.gktoday.in › topic › lord-wellesleyLord Wellesley - GKToday

    • Fourth Anglo Mysore War
    • Second Anglo Maratha War
    • Subsidiary Alliance System
    • Censorship Act 1799
    • Fort William College 1800
    • Successors of Lord Wellesley 1805-1807

    In 1798, the troops of Napoleon had sailed to Egypt and had defeated its rulers. One of subsequent step of Napoleon would be to capture the British Possessions in India. The key to such step was Kingdom of Mysore, whose ruler Tipu had sought France as ally. In a letter to Tipu, Napoleon said that he would send his innumerable forces to India to dri...

    For twenty years after the First Anglo-Maratha war had ended in 1782, there was no battle between Maratha and British. Meanwhile Tipu, the most ardent enemy of British had been eliminated. The Marathas were still powerful but rather than a united single force, the Marathas were a confederation of several states. The most prominent among them were S...

    The Subsidiary Alliance System was a Treaty between the company and the Indian native rulers. In return for a payment or subsidy, the company would place garrison troops in that ruler’s territory to fight against their enemies. Subsidiary alliance system was originally the idea of Dupleix, who used to rent his army to Indian rulers. Similarly, Cliv...

    In 1780, James Augustus Hickeypublished first newspaper in India titled “Bengal Gazette” or “Calcutta General Advertiser”. This was too outspoken and its press was seized soon. Then there was a general proliferation of the newspapers including The Calcutta Gazette (1784), The Bengal Journal (1785), The Oriental Magazine of Calcutta (1785), The Calc...

    The initial attempt to train the Civil Servants locally was done by Lord Wellesley. Within the campus of the Fort William, he founded Fort Williams College on 10 July 1800. The idea was to teach the British rookies understand the Oriental Culture, tradition, law and administration to better coordinate in the “governance”.

    The adventures of Lord Wellesley were good, but they were costly. The continuous wars with Mysore and Marathas, his policy of launching educational projects in India caused the financial strain which made the Court of Directors impatient. He was recalled in July 1805 and once again Lord Cornwallis was sent to India. He was advised by his peers to b...

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