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  1. Madame de Maintenon, nacida Françoise d'Aubigné, fue amante del rey Luis XIV de Francia y su segunda esposa, en matrimonio morganático y secreto. Convertida tras su primer matrimonio en Madame Scarron, más tarde recibió el título de marquesa de Maintenon, como fue desde entonces también conocida.

  2. Madame de Maintenon, née Françoise d'Aubigné ou, plus rarement, d'Aubigny 1, née le 27 novembre 1635 à Niort et morte le 15 avril 1719 à la Maison royale de Saint-Louis à Saint-Cyr, est une dame française des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles qui fut l'épouse puis la veuve de Paul Scarron. Par la suite, elle fut titrée marquise de Maintenon.

    • Childhood
    • Arrival at The Court
    • Uncrowned Queen of France
    • Educational Efforts
    • Later Life
    • in Popular Culture
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Birth at Niort

    Françoise d'Aubigné was born on 27 November 1635, in Niort, France. A plaque suggests her birthplace was at the Hotel du Chaumont, but some sources indicate she was born in or just outside the local prison, where her Huguenot father Constant d'Aubigné was incarcerated for conspiring against King Louis XIII's powerful chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu. Her mother, Jeanne de Cardilhac, was the daughter of the prison director and was probably seduced by the incarcerated Constant. She was a ferv...

    Protestant upbringing

    In 1639, Constant was released from prison and went with Jeanne and Françoise to the French island colony of Martinique in the West Indies. Jeanne was a strict mother, allowing her children few liberties. She gave them a Protestant education despite their Catholic baptism. Constant returned to France, leaving his family behind in Martinique, causing Jeanne to try to be "mother and father" to their children until they also returned to France, in 1647. Within months of the family's return, both...


    Françoise disliked convent life, mainly because she received only limited education and freedom. Her lessons included basic mathematics, French, Latin, and domestic work. The main emphasis was on religion and liturgy, with no opening onto the secular world. Despite her disgust, Françoise grew to love one of the nuns there, Sister Céleste, who persuaded the young girl to receive her first communion. In her older days, Maintenon would say, "I loved [Sister Céleste] more than I could possibly sa...


    In her excursion with Madame de Neuillant, Françoise met accomplished poet Paul Scarron, who was 25 years her senior, and began to correspond with him. He counted King Louis XIII's favourites among his patrons and offered her marriage or pay her dowry so that she might enter a convent. Although Scarron suffered from chronic and crippling pain, Françoise accepted his proposal and the two married in 1652. The match permitted her to gain access to the highest levels of Parisian society, somethin...

    Royal governess

    After Paul Scarron's death in 1660, Queen Mother Anne of Austria, continued his pension to his widow and even increased it to 2,000 livres a year, thus enabling Françoise to remain in literary society. After his mother's death in 1666, Louis XIV suspended the pension. Once again in straitened circumstances and having spent several years living off the charity of her friends, Madame Scarron prepared to leave Paris for Lisbon as a lady-in-waiting to the new queen of Portugal, Marie-Françoise de...

    Secret marriage to Louis XIV

    "Madame de Maintenon knows how to love. There would be great pleasure in being loved by her," said the king, Louis XIV. He probably asked her to become his mistress at that time.[when?] Though she later claimed she didn't yield to his advances ("Nothing is so clever as to conduct one's self irreproachably,") the king spent much of his spare time with the royal governess by the late 1670s, discussing politics, economics, and religion. After the death of Marie-Thérèse, Françoise married Louis i...

    Political influence

    Historians have often remarked upon Madame de Maintenon's political influence, which was considerable. She was regarded as the next most powerful person after the king, considered the equivalent of a prime minister after 1700. Without an official position as queen, she was more easily approached by those wishing to have an audience with the king. However, her judgment wasn't infallible and some mistakes were undoubtedly made; replacing the military commander Nicolas Catinat by the Duke of Vil...

    Madame de Maintenon founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for girls of impoverished noble families, who were becoming increasingly numerous because many provincial noblemen died in wars or expended their fortunes in the King's service. The school began at Rueil and moved to Noisy-le-Roi until the King endowed Saint-Cyr, a village 5 km ...

    After her husband's death in 1715, Françoise retired to Saint-Cyr with a pension of 48,000 livres by the Duc d'Orléans and regent of France. She continued to receive visitors at Saint-Cyr, including Tsar Peter the Great of Russia. He was seated at a chair by the foot of her bed and asked what her illness was, to which she replied, "Old age". She as...

    Madame de Maintenon is briefly mentioned in Alexandre Dumas' book Twenty Years After. She converses with Raoul, the fictional Vicomte de Bragelonne, at Abbe Scarron's party.
    Madame de Maintenon is featured by Arthur Conan Doyle in his novel The Refugees, which includes the story of her midnight marriage ceremony.
    F. Scott Fitzgerald references Madame de Maintenon in The Great Gatsbyin describing "Ella Kaye, the newspaper woman," who apparently murders Gatsby's father figure Dan Cody.
    Madame de Maintenon was portrayed by Catherine Walker in the TV series Versailles.
    Bryant, Mark. Queen of Versailles: Madame de Maintenon, First Lady of Louis XIV's France (2020) online
    Bryant, Mark (2004). "Partner, Matriarch, and Minister: Mme de Maintenon of France, Clandestine Consort, 1680-1715". In Campbell Orr, Clarissa (ed.). Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the...
    Buckley, Veronica (2008). Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-8098-0.
    Fraser, Antonia (2006). Love and Louis XIV. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-82997-1.
    Françoise Chandernagor, L'Allée du Roi: a novel (in French). Paris: Julliard, 1995. ISBN 2-266-06787-7.
    Alice Acland, The Secret Wife (novel). London: Peter Davies Ltd, 1975. ISBN 9780432004111
    Lucy Norton, The Sun King and His Loves. London: The Folio Society, 1982.
    Works by Madame de Maintenon at Project Gutenberg
    Works by or about Madame de Maintenon at Internet Archive
    Works by Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon at LibriVox(public domain audiobooks)
  3. Madame de Maintenon (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719) was a French woman. She became the second wife of King Louis XIV, even though the marriage was never announced to the public. She was born " Françoise d'Aubigné ", a daughter of Constant d'Aubigné and his wife Jeanne de Cardilhac. She was born in Niort, in western France.

    • Constant d'Aubigné
    • 27 November 1635, Hôtel du Chaumont, Niort, France
  4. El Palacio de Maintenon es un chateau de estilo gótico y renacentista con museo, un parque y jardines «à la française», «à l'anglaise», que cuenta con un palomar, ruinas del acueducto de Luis XIV y arboreto de 30 hectáreas de extensión de propiedad privada, localizado en la comuna de Maintenon, región de Centro-Val de Loira de Francia. El edificio se halla en el Valle del Loira inscrito como Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO. El palacio de Maintenon ha sido objeto ...

  5. Françoise d’Aubigné, verheiratete Madame Scarron, ab 1688 Marquise de Maintenon, genannt Madame de Maintenon (* 27. November 1635 in Niort; † 15. April 1719 in Saint-Cyr-l’École), gilt als letzte Mätresse Ludwigs XIV. von Frankreich, und war, wohl ab 1683, in einer stets geheim gehaltenen morganatischen Ehe seine zweite Gemahlin.

  6. Madame de Maintenon heeft vermoedelijk grote invloed op de politiek van de koning gehad. Ze kreeg gedaan dat de koning zijn bastaardkinderen (die zij had grootgebracht) in rang verhief boven de hertogen, en verwierf voor een van hen, Lodewijk August van Bourbon , hertog van Maine, belangrijke benoemingen in Lodewijks testament, waardoor de positie van de latere regent, de hertog van Orléans , uitgehold werd.