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  1. Sir. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) [note 1] was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies of the Parliament of England against King Charles I during the English Civil War, subsequently ruling the British Isles as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

    • English
    • pre-1642 (militia service), 1642–1651 (civil war)
    • Militant Puritan
    • Cavalry Commander
    • Army Grandee
    • The Commonwealth
    • Lord Protector
    • “King in All But Name”
    • Death and Beyond

    In August 1620, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier (1598–1665), daughter of Sir James Bourchier, a London merchant. The marriage was long and stable and produced nine children. Cromwell and his growing family settled in Huntingdon. Thanks to connections between the Cromwells and the powerful Montagu family, he was elected MP for Huntingdon in the...

    On the outbreak of the First Civil War in August 1642, Cromwell took up arms for Parliament. He led one of the earliest military actions of the war when with 200 lightly-armed volunteers he prevented the King's men from carrying off the silver plate of the Cambridge colleges. Cromwell raised a troop of sixty horsemen and effectively secured Cambrid...

    Cromwell supported the Agitators in the conflict between the Army and Parliament of 1647. He was a firm advocate of parliamentary authority but he lost patience with those Presbyterian MPs who seemed willing to risk another civil war rather than settle the soldiers' grievances honourably. Acting independently of Fairfax, and in close association wi...

    After the execution of Charles I and the declaration of the republic in 1649, the English Commonwealth was governed by the so-called Rump Parliament and the Council of State. The Rump Parliament was regarded as an interim government and was expected to prepare for a permanent representative but divisions arose between factions in Parliament and in ...

    Headed by Major-General Lambert, the council of officers proposed a new constitution. In discussions with the officers, Cromwell made it clear that he did not want to be made king. Seeking to maintain links with the ancient constitution yet distance himself from the disgraced monarchy, Cromwell proposed a revival of the title "Lord Protector", whic...

    The Protectorate gradually adopted the trappings of a monarchy. Cromwell was usually addressed as "your Highness" and by 1656 he was rewarding his loyal followers with knighthoods. In February 1657, a group of MPs headed by Lord Broghill presented a new constitution known as The Humble Petition and Adviceunder which Cromwell was formally offered th...

    During a bout of the recurring malarial fever that had afflicted him since the 1630s, Oliver Cromwell died at Whitehall on 3 September 1658—the anniversary of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. A violent storm wracked England during the night of his death, said by his enemies to be the Devil carrying away his soul. He was buried in Westminster ...

  2. Oliver Cromwell ( Huntingdon, Inglaterra; 25 de abril de 1599 - Londres, 3 de septiembre de 1658) fue un líder político y militar inglés. Convirtió a Inglaterra en una república denominada Mancomunidad de Inglaterra (en inglés, Commonwealth of England ).

  3. Oliver Cromwell (5 September 1644). Cromwell persuaded parliament it was essential to develop a modern professional army. Cromwell’s so-called ‘New Model Army’ was instrumental in defeating the Royalist forces, most decisively at the Battle of Naseby in 1645. After the defeat of Charles I, Cromwell was instrumental in seeing the King executed.

  4. Oliver was born at 1.30 am on 25 April 1599, the son of Robert Cromwell, gentleman, and of Elizabeth his wife, and he was baptised on the 29th of the same month in the church of St John the Baptist at Huntingdon. He was christened Oliver in honour of his uncle the Knight of Hinchinbrooke.

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