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  1. Ireland [a] Éire (Irish) Flag Coat of arms Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann" "The Soldiers' Song" Location of Ireland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) Capital and largest city Dublin Official languages Irish [b] English Ethnic groups (2016) 92.4% White 2.1% Asian 1.3% Black 1.5% Other 2.6% Not stated Religion (2016) 85.1% Christianity —78.3% Roman ...

  2. de.wikipedia.org › wiki › IrlandIrland – Wikipedia

    Die Republik Irland grenzt im Norden an Nordirland und damit an das Vereinigte Königreich. Im Osten liegt die Irische See, im Westen und Süden ist das Land vom Atlantik umgeben. Hauptstadt und größte Stadt Irlands ist Dublin, gelegen im östlichen Teil des Landes. In der Metropolregion Dublin lebt etwa ein Drittel der 4,9 Millionen Einwohner.

    • Background to Independence
    • The Irish State, 1922–1939
    • World War II, Neutrality, and "The Emergency" 1939–1945
    • 1949 – Declaring A Republic
    • Current History
    • Relationship with Northern Ireland 1945–Present
    • Social Liberalisation
    • National Scandals
    • See Also
    • References

    Separatism, rebellion and partition

    From Union in 1801 until 6 December 1922 the whole of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, from the 1880s, there had been long-standing nationalist agitation for autonomy or Home Rule. Other, more radical voices such as the Irish Republican Brotherhoodcalled for independence, but these were in a minority. In 1912–1913, the Liberal government in Britain proposed a Bill for Home Rule. Alarmed, unionists in the north organized the Ulster Volunteers, an ar...

    Anglo-Irish Treaty

    Negotiations between the British and Irish negotiating teams produced the Anglo-Irish Treaty, concluded on 6 December 1921. The Irish team was led by Michael Collins, who had organised the IRA intelligence during the War of Independence. The British team led by David Lloyd George and Winston Churchillwere prepared to make concessions on Irish independence but would not concede a republic. Towards the end of negotiations, Lloyd George threatened, "immediate and terrible war" if the Irish did n...

    Civil War

    On a vote of 64 to 57, the Dáil narrowly passed the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 7 January 1922. Éamon de Valera, President of the Republic and several other cabinet members resigned in protest. The pro-Treaty leadership of Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, organised in a Provisional Government, set about establishing the Irish Free State created by the Treaty. To this end, they began recruiting for a new army, based initially at Beggars Bush Barracksin Dublin, composed of pro-Treaty IRA units. T...

    Immediately after the Civil War, elections were held in which anti-Treaty Sinn Féin were allowed to participate. Although many of their candidates, including Éamon de Valera, were imprisoned, they won about one third of the vote. However the pro-Treaty side, organised in Cumann na nGaedheal, won a comfortable majority and went on to form the govern...

    The outbreak of the Second World War put the state and the de Valera government in a difficult situation. It came under pressure from Britain and later the US, to enter the war, or at least to allow the allies to use its ports. However, there remained a minority who felt that national independence had yet to be achieved and who were resolutely oppo...

    On 18 April 1949 the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, which had been enacted by the Oireachtas, came into force. That legislation described Ireland as the Republic of Ireland but did not change the country's name. The international and diplomatic functions previously vested in or exercised by the king were now vested in the President of Ireland who fi...

    Economic, political and social history, 1945–1998

    Ireland emerged from the Second World War in better condition than many European countries, having been spared direct involvement in the war and with an income per capita higher than that of most belligerent countries. Ireland also benefited from a loan under the Marshal Plan; $36 million, at 2% interest. The money was spent on an extensive housing and slum-clearing project and a successful campaign to eradicate tuberculosis. However, whereas most European countries experienced a sustained ec...

    "Celtic Tiger;" Economic growth of 1990s–2008

    The state had had a disappointing economic performance for much of its existence, but it became one of the fastest growing economies in the world by the 1990s, a phenomenon known as the Celtic Tiger. One factor in this was a policy of attracting foreign investment by offering very low taxes on profits ("corporations taxes", which were set at 12%) and by investing in education – offering a well-educated work force at relatively low wages and access to the now-open European market. The second f...

    Economic and political history 2008–present

    The Irish banks had invested heavily in loans to property developers and were facing ruin as result of the property markets' collapse and also the international 'Credit crunch' or drying up of loans from abroad. Much of the Irish economy and public finances had also depended on the property market and its collapse at roughly the same time as the banking crisis impacted all parts of the Irish economy. It also meant that revenue collected by the state fell radically. This situation was compound...

    The official position of the Irish state, as laid out in the 1937 constitution, was that the territory of the state comprised the whole island of Ireland, but that its laws applied only to the territory of the Free State, as outlined in the 1922 Treaty. Thereafter the policies of Irish governments pursued the peaceful unification of Ireland through...

    In the late twentieth century, Irish society underwent rapid social change. After the introduction of free education in the late 1960s, many more people had access to second and third level qualifications. The relative economic success of the 1960s and 1970s also decreased emigration, meaning that Ireland became a younger and much more urban societ...

    Part of the reason why social liberalisaton was widely accepted by the 1990s was due to a very damaging series of scandals in that decade. The revelation that one senior Catholic bishop, Eamon Casey, fathered a child by a divorcée caused a major reaction, as did the discovery of a child abuse ring whereby offenders became clerics in order to use th...

    Sources

    1. Hopkinson, Michael (2004). Green Against Green, The Irish Civil War. ISBN 9780717137602. 2. Lee, J.J. (1989). Ireland, 1912-1985: Politics and Society. ISBN 9780521377416.

    • Name
    • Gründung
    • Regierung
    • Präsident Der Republik
    • Kampf Um Anerkennung
    • Auflösung

    In der englischen Sprache ist der Staat als Irish Republic oder gelegentlich als Republic of Ireland bekannt. Auch in der irischen Sprache gibt es zwei Bezeichnungen: Poblacht na hÉireann und Saorstát Éireann – je nachdem, wie man das Wort Republik ins Irische übersetzt. Poblacht ist das entlehnte und „gälisierte“ Wort Republic aus dem Englischen b...

    1916 riefen nationalistische Rebellen während des Osteraufstands die Irische Republikdurch die Verlesung der Oster-Proklamation aus. Durch diese Verlesung erklärten sie die Unabhängigkeit und ernannten die Führer des Aufstandes zur "Provisorischen Regierung der Irischen Republik", bis es möglich sein würde, ein nationales Parlament zu wählen. Doch ...

    Die zentrale Institution der Republik war Dáil Éireann, welches sich als Einkammer-Parlament versammelte. Während der First Dáil aus Mitgliedern bestand, die 1918 gewählt wurden, wurden die zwei folgenden Wahlen, die von der britischen Regierung durchgeführt wurden, von den Nationalisten als Wahlen für den Dáil angesehen. Der Second Dáil (1921) bes...

    Präsident der Republik war der Titel des Staatsoberhauptes des irischen Ministeriums (Aireacht). Er wurde im August 1921 nach Vorgaben der Dáil-Verfassung geschaffen und löste den vorigen Titel des Priomh Aire (oder Präsident des Dáil Éireann) ab. Im Gegensatz zum Vorgängertitel, der lediglich den Kopf der Regierung beinhaltete, war der Präsident d...

    Die Anstrengungen von Präsident de Valera in den USA sowie die des Botschafters Sean T. O'Kelly bei der Friedenskonferenz in Versailles um internationale Anerkennung schlugen fehl, obwohl O'Kelly bereits im April 1919 in Paris und Dr. Pat McCartan in Washington, D.C. eine „Botschaft“ der Republik eingerichtet hatte. Trotz großer Unterstützungen von...

    Mit der Annahme des Anglo-Irischen Vertrags im Dezember 1921 und der Verfassung des Irischen Freistaates im Oktober 1922 stimmte das Dáil der Auflösung der Irischen Republik und deren Ablösung durch die konstitutionelle Monarchie des Freistaates zu. Im Third Dáil, gewählt gemäß den Bedingungen des Anglo-Irischen Vertrags, saßen nur noch Mitglieder,...

    • Proklamationsflagge
    • Dublin
  3. sv.wikipedia.org › wiki › IrlandIrland – Wikipedia

    • Historia
    • Geografi
    • Styre och Politik
    • Ekonomi
    • Demografi
    • Kultur
    • Se även
    • Referenser

    Under medeltiden utgjorde Irland en feodalt styrd stat med den engelske kungen som furste. Den irländska statsbildningen var trots detta skild från England och detta tillstånd kvarstod när Irland 1541 omvandlades till kungarike i personalunionmed England. Den 1 januari 1801 införlivades Kungariket Irland med Kungariket Storbritannien och bildade de...

    Irland är mycket bördigt. Dess högsta punkt är Carrantuohill, dess största sjö Lough Corrib och dess längsta flod Shannon. 1. Högsta punkt: Carrantuohill, 1 041 meter 2. Naturtillgångar: Zink, koppar, kalksten

    Irland är en republik med en president, som dock mest utför ceremoniella uppgifter. Presidenten väljs på sju år och kan maximalt sitta två mandatperioder. År 1990 valdes för första gången en kvinna, Mary Robinson, till president. Hon efterträddes 1997 av Mary McAleese (iriska: Máire Mhic Ghiolla Íosa) som blev Irlands andra kvinnliga president. Sed...

    Efter en svältkatastrof vid mitten av 1800-talet utvecklades Irland snabbt fram till första världskriget, om än från en ogynnsam utgångspunkt. Efter första världskrigetförsämrades tillväxten dels eftersom den viktigaste handelspartnern Storbritannien tyngdes av ekonomiska svårigheter, dels eftersom Irland inriktade sig på självförsörjning vilket in...

    Den ursprungliga irländska kulturen var keltisk, och rester av den finns bevarade som ett folkligt arv, en del med hjälp av det gamla keltiska språket. En kulturell blomstring med betydelse även för övriga Europa inföll under tidig medeltid, då Irland var "helgonens och de lärdes ö" med en viktig roll som bevarare och förmedlare av kristen litterat...

    Källförteckning

    1. Editions Atlas, Lausanne: Min nya världsatlas, utgåva 2010, kort Västeuropa→Irland

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  4. no.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › Republikken_IrlandIrland – Wikipedia

    Irland (irsk: Éire; engelsk: Ireland) er en stat på øya Irland, utenfor den nordvestlige kysten av Europa. Staten dekker 5 ⁄ 6 av øya og grenser til Nord-Irland , som er en del av Det forente kongerike Storbritannia og Nord-Irland .