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The Russian Orthodox church was drastically weakened in May 1922, when the Renovated (Living) Church, a reformist movement backed by the Soviet secret police, broke away from Patriarch Tikhon (also see the Josephites and the Russian True Orthodox Church), a move that caused division among clergy and faithful that persisted until 1946.
Russian Orthodoxy ( Russian: Русское православие) is the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Church Slavonic language. Russian Orthodoxy is a part of Eastern Orthodoxy .
- Christianization of The Rus
- Under Mongol Rule
- 15th Century
- Changes and Reforms
- Autocephaly and Reorganization
- 17th Century
- Territorial Expansion
- Abolition of Patriarchy and The Holy Synod
- Fin-De-Siècle Religious Renaissance
- Russian Revolution
Orthodox Christian Constantinople's greatest mission outreach was to areas known as Kievan Rus that are now and then were states of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Christianity was introduced into Kievan Rus by Greek missionaries from Byzantium in the 9th century. In 863–869, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius translated parts of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs. There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatius, circa 866-867 AD. By the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Greek and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kievwas the first ruler of Kievan Rus to convert to Christianity, either in 945 or 957. The Kievan church was originally a metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the...
The Russian church enjoyed a favoured position while parts of Russia lay under Mongol rule from the 13th-15th century. Sergius, as well as the metropolitans St. Peter (1308–26) and St. Alexius (1354–78), supported the rising power of the principality of Moscow. The church enjoyed protection for its land and buildings as well as freedom from taxes. In addition it was guaranteed freedom from persecution in accordance with Islamic religious law. To that extent, there was even a legal relationship between the Golden Horde and the Russian Orthodox Church since these rights had been conceded in a formal document (jarlig). The church was only required to pray for the Khan. This continuation of the "symphony" corresponded with the Orthodox idea of a state that protected the Orthodox Church and, therefore could call for loyalty. Centuries later, the ecumenical patriarchs dealt hardly differently with the Ottoman rulers. In 1261, the Russian church established an eparchy in Sarai, the capital...
During the 15th century the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Tartaroppression, and to expand both economically and spiritually. At the Council of Florence 1439, a group of Orthodox Church leaders agreed upon terms of reunification with Papacy. The Moscow Prince Vasily II, however, rejected the concessions to the Roman Church and forbade the proclamation of the acts of the Council in Moscow in 1452. The Russian Metropolitan Isidore, who had signed the Union act, was in the same year expelled from his position as an apostate. In 1448, the Russian Church in Moscow became effectively independent from the Patriarchate of Constantinople — when the Russian bishops in Moscow elected their own primate, Jonas, a Russian bishop, without recourse to Constantinople. The Russian church within the bounds of the Grand Duchy of Moscow was thenceforth effe...
The reign of Ivan III and his successor was plagued by numerous heresies and controversies. One party, led by Nil Sorsky and Vassian Kosoy, called for secularisation of monastic properties. They were oppugned by the influential Joseph of Volotsk, who defended ecclesiastical ownership of land and property. The sovereign's position fluctuated, but eventually he threw his support to Joseph. New sects sprang up, some of which showed a tendency to revert to Mosaic law: for instance, the archpriest Aleksei converted to Judaism after meeting a certain Zechariah the Jew. Monastic life flourished, with two major strands co-existing until the definitive defeat of the non-possessors in 1551. The disciples of St. Sergius left the Trinity monastery near Moscow to found dozens of monasteries across northeastern Russia. Some of the most famous monasteries were located in the Russian North, in order to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands. The richest landowners of me...
During the reign of Tsar Fyodor I, his brother-in-law Boris Godunov, who was effectively running the government, contacted the Ecumenical Patriarch, who "was much embarrassed for want of funds," with a view to elevating the status of the Moscow Metroplis to a patriarchate. Eventually, after protracted negotiations, in January 1589 the Moscow Patriarchate was established, making Metropolitan Job the first Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. During the next half a century, when the tsardom was weak, the patriarchs (notably Germogen and Philaret) would run the state along with (and sometimes instead of) the Tsars.
The beginning of the 17th century proved to be a troublesome period for the Moscow state, following the death of the last Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598. The Poles and Swedes repeatedly invaded Russia from the west, with the Polish prince Władysław Vasa elected the Russian Tsar by the Seven Boyars in 1610. At this time of political turmoil, Patriarch Germogen (1606–1612), proved to be a staunch opponent of the Seven Boyars as well as any Catholic pretender to the Moscow throne. That period also saw the Trinity Monastery (the modern Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius) withstanding months of a siege by a hostile force.
In the late 17th and the next two centuries, due to the expansion of the boundaries of the Russian state, the Russian Church experienced phenomenal geographic expansion too. In 1686, the Moscow Patriarchate obtained a part of the Metropolis of Kiev, which until then comprised the Orthodox population on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, — from the Patriarchate of Constantinople, although the exact terms and conditions of the handover is a contested issue. In November 1685, Gedeon Chetvertinsky was installed as the Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' by Patriarch Joachim of Moscow; this act was recognized by Patriarch Dionysius IV of Constantinoplethe following year. His title, privileges, and status were subsequently greatly reduced. Following the incorporation of Georgia into Russia in the early 19th century, the de facto independence that the Orthodox Church had enjoyed in that country was abolished in 1811 and the Georgian Church became an exarchateof the Russian Church....
In 1700, upon the death of Patriarch Adrian, Peter I prevented a successor from being named. In 1721, following the advice of Feofan Prokopovich, the patriarchate of Moscow was replaced with the Most Holy Governing Synod to govern the church. The Holy Governing Synod was modeled after the state-controlled synods of the Lutheran Church of Sweden and in Prussiaand was tightly intertwined with the state. The Synod remained the supreme church body in the Russian Church for almost two centuries. In 1762 Peter III made an attempt to secularize all church land and serfs. Catherine the Great, who initially reversed Peter's decree, eventually re-affirmed it in 1764 and went still further by closing 569 out of 954 monasteries. In 1785 the Orthodox clergy did not receive a single seat in Catherine's legislative commission. By 1786, Catherine chose to simply exclude all religion and clerical studies programs from lay education. In 1797 the Holy Synodbanned the election of priests who were now a...
During the final decades of the imperial order in Russia many educated Russians sought to return to the Church and revitalize their faith. No less evident were non-conformist paths of spiritual searching known as God-Seeking. Writers, artists, and intellectuals in large numbers were drawn to private prayer, mysticism, spiritualism, theosophy, and Eastern religions. A fascination with elemental feeling, with the unconscious and the mythic, proliferated along with visions of coming catastrophe and redemption. The visible forms of God-Seeking were extensive. A series of 'Religious–Philosophical Meetings' were held in Saint Petersburg in 1901–1903, bringing together prominent intellectuals and clergy to explore together ways to reconcile the Church with the growing if undogmatic desire among the educated for spiritual meaning in life. Especially after 1905, various religious societies arose, though much of this religious upheaval was informal: circles and salons, séances, private prayer...
In 1914 in Russia, there were 55,173 Russian Orthodox churches and 29,593 chapels, 112,629 priests and deacons, 550 monasteries and 475 conventswith a total of 95,259 monks and nuns. The year 1917 was a major turning point for the history of Russia, and also the Russian Orthodox Church. The Russian empire was dissolved and the Tsarist government – which had granted the Church numerous privileges – was overthrown. After a few months of political turmoil, the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917 and declared a separation of church and state. The government seized all church lands. Thus the Russian Orthodox Church found itself without official state backing for the first time in its history. One of the first decrees of the new Communist government (issued in January 1918) declared freedom of "religious and anti-religious propaganda". This led to a marked decline in the power and influence of the Church. The Church was also caught in the crossfire of the Russian Civil War that began la...
- Estructura Y Organización
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- Enlaces Externos
Desde la introducción del cristianismo hasta la Revolución rusa
El cristianismo penetró en la Rus de Kiev, según el relato de Néstor el Cronista, desde el siglo I, siendo San Andrés el primer evangelizador del país. San Andrés recorrió la región situada al norte del mar Negro, llegando hasta el río Dniéper, lugar donde se encuentra la ciudad de Kiev, la actual capital de Ucrania. En el siglo IV existían varias diócesis en la Rusia meridional. La expansión definitiva del cristianismo por todo el país tuvo lugar en el siglo IX, cuando los pueblos de la Rus...
Después de la Revolución bolchevique de 1917, aproximadamente un millón de rusos tuvieron que marchar al exilio, disgregándose en varios países. Aún más tuvieron que huir de Rusia después de la derrota del Ejército Blanco (pro-zarista) en su intento por destruir al nuevo régimen, junto a ellos debieron abandonar el país numerosos clérigos. En 1917, el gobierno soviético, en aras de la separación de la Iglesia del Estado, suprimió el Santo Sínodo Gobernante y restituyo la institución del Patri...
Las conversaciones para la reunificación comenzaron tan pronto se desintegró la Unión Soviética el 25 de diciembre de 1991 y terminaron el jueves 17 de mayo de 2007 con la firma del "Acta de comunión canónica" entre el Patriarca Alejo II (Patriarcado de Moscú y toda Rusia) y el Metropolitano Laurus (Iglesia rusa en el exilio). Este histórico evento contó con la presencia del presidente ruso Vladímir Putin y otras destacadas personalidades de ese país, poniendo fin a casi 90 años de cisma. La...
Las partes constituyentes de la Iglesia ortodoxa rusa en otros países de su competencia exclusiva que no sean Rusia, como Ucrania o Bielorrusia, están legalmente registradas como entidades legales separadas, de conformidad con la legislación de aquellos estados independientes. Eclesiásticamente, la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa se organiza en una estructura jerárquica. El nivel inferior de la organización, lo que normalmente sería un solo edificio de la Iglesia ortodoxa rusa y sus asistentes, encabezada por un sacerdote que actúa como padre superior (en ruso, настоятель, nastoyátel), constituye una parroquia (en ruso, приход, prijod). Todas las parroquias en una región geográfica pertenecen a una eparquía (en ruso, епархия, equivalente a una diócesis occidental). Las eparquías se rigen por los obispos (en ruso, епископ, obispo o архиерей, archiereus). Hay 261 eparquías ortodoxas rusas en todo el mundo (datos de junio de 2012). Además, algunos eparquías se organizan en exarcados o iglesias a...
Russian Orthodox Church. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate are Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church .
The Russian Orthodox cross or Orthodox cross is a variation of the Christian cross since the 16th century in Russia, although it bears some similarity to a cross with a bottom crossbeam slanted the other way (upwards) found since the 6th century in the Byzantine Empire.
The Russian Orthodox Army (Russian: Русская православная армия, Russkaya pravoslavnaya armiya) is a militant group in Ukraine that was founded in May 2014, as part of the insurgency and following war in Donbas. It reportedly had 100 members at the time of its founding, including locals and Russian volunteers.
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