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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Orlov_familyOrlov family - Wikipedia

    Orlov (Russian: Орлóв) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, scientists, diplomats, and soldiers. The family first gained distinction in the 18th century through the achievements of five Orlov brothers, of whom the second eldest was Catherine the Great 's paramour, and two younger brothers were notable military commanders.

    • Vida
    • La Historia Secreta
    • El Espía Sin Patria
    • Véase también
    • Fuentes
    • Bibliografía
    • Enlaces Externos

    Juventud

    Nacido Leiba Lázarevich Feldbin (Лейба Лазаревич Фельдбин), Orlov era un judío bielorruso. Acudió al Instituto Lázarevski en Moscú, pero lo dejó dos semestres para estudiar Leyes en la Universidad de Moscú. Sus estudios, sin embargo, fueron cortados por el estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundialy su llamada a filas. Al comenzar la Guerra civil rusa, Orlov se unió al Ejército Rojo y se convirtió en oficial de contrainteligencia en el frente polaco vecino a la ciudad de Kiev. Planificó y condujo...

    Espía

    Cuando su primo fue trasladado para supervisar a los guardias de fronteras de la OGPU en Transcaucasia, ofreció a Orlov la oportunidad de trasladarse a Tiflis con su familia como jefe de la guardia fronteriza allí destacada, que aceptó. Allí su hija enfermó de fiebres reumáticas, por lo que Orlov pidió a su amigo Artur Artúzov que le trasladara a un destino en el que su hija pudiera ser tratada por doctores europeos. Subsecuentemente, en 1926fue transferido al INO, la rama del NKVD responsabl...

    En la guerra civil española

    En julio de 1936 Orlov fue enviado a España como enlace del NKVD con el Ministerio de Interior de la Segunda República Española. Se dice que Orlov fue enviado a España después de que una joven secretaria, con la que él había tenido una relación, se suicidara en frente de la Lubianka porque Orlov rechazó dejar a su mujer. Orlov llegó a Madrid el 15 de septiembre de 1936. El 14 de septiembre de 1936 se celebra una reunión en Moscú, en los locales de la Lubianka, para coordinar el envío de mater...

    Poco después de la muerte de Stalin en marzo de 1953, y exactamente 15 años después de su deserción, Orlov reapareció y publicó The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes (La historia secreta de los crímenes de Stalin). Esta obra, inspirada por la homóloga de Procopio de Cesarea, presenta una serie de anécdotas inéditas sobre el submundo homicida de la ...

    Después de la publicación de The Secret History, Orlov fue forzado a volver del frío. La CIA y el FBI estaban avergonzados por la revelación de que un alto cargo oficial de la NKVD (Orlov fue un Comandante de la Seguridad del Estado, igual que un mayor general del ejército) había estado viviendo en la sombra en EE. UU. durante quince años sin su co...

    «El espía retirado». Suplemento literario del Times, 28 de septiembre de 2001.
    Aleksandr Orlov, The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes. Random House, 1953.
    John Costello y Oleg Tsarev, Deadly Illusions: The KGB Orlov Dossier. Crown, 1993. ISBN 0-517-58850-1.
    Aleksandr Orlov, The Handbook of Intelligence and Guerrilla Warfare, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1963.

    Hugh Thomas. Historia de la Guerra Civil Española. Ed. Círculo de Lectores. Valencia/Barcelona 1976. ISBN 84-226-0874-X.

    «Un agente estalinista, cerebro del asesinato de Nin», artículo de Ángel Viñas en El País, 22 de abril de 2007
    «La garra de Moscú», artículo de Ángel Viñas en La Aventura de la Historia, número 104, junio de 2007
    • Family and Early Life
    • Involvement in The 1762 Coup
    • Service Under Catherine II
    • Old Age and Death

    Alexei was born into the noble Orlov family in Lyubini in Tver Oblast on 5 October [O.S. 24 September] 1737, the son of Grigory Ivanovich Orlov, governor of Novgorod, and brother of Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov. He entered the Preobrazhensky Regiment and by 1762 had reached the rank of sergeant. He distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War and wa...

    Together with his brother Grigory, Alexei Orlov became involved in the palace coup to overthrow Tsar Peter III and place his wife, Catherine, on the Russian throne. In the coup, carried out in July 1762, Alexei went to meet Catherine at the Peterhof Palace, and finding her in bed, announced 'the time has come for you to reign, madame.' He then drov...

    The Orlovs were rewarded after Catherine's accession, and Alexei was promoted to the rank of major-general, and given the title of count. He and his brother received 50,000 roubles and 800 serfs. Despite a lack of formal education and his ignorance of foreign languages, he maintained an interest in science, patronizing Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis F...

    After Catherine's death in 1796 the new ruler, Tsar Paul I ordered that his father, Peter III, be reburied in a grand ceremony. Alexei Orlov was ordered to carry the Imperial Crown in front of the coffin. Orlov was briefly suspected of having been one of the assassins of Paul I. Orlov left Russia during the reign of Paul I, but returned to Moscow a...

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    • Aliases
    • Early Life
    • State Security Service
    • Defection
    • The Secret History
    • After The Secret History
    • False and Disputed Claims
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • Further Reading

    Throughout his career, Orlov was also known under the names of Lev Lazarevich Nikolsky, Lev Leonidovich Nikolaev, SCHWED (his OGPU/NKVD code name), Leo Feldbiene (as in his Austrian passport), William Goldin (as in his US passport), Koornick (the name of his Jewish relatives living in the US). Travelling in the United States, he often registered un...

    He was born Lev Lazarevich Feldbin in the Belarusian town of Babruysk on August 21, 1895, to an Orthodox Jewish family. He attended the Lazarevsky Institute in Moscow but left it after two semesters to enroll at Moscow University to study law. His study, however, was cut short when he was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. When the Russian Civ...

    When his cousin was moved to supervise the Transcaucasian Border Troops of the OGPU, he offered to Nikolsky and his wife the opportunity to move to Tiflis (now Tbilisi, Georgia) as chief of the Border Guard unit there, which he accepted. There, their daughter contracted a rheumatic fever infection, and Orlov asked his friend and former colleague, A...

    Meanwhile, the Great Purge continued as Stalin and his inner circle sought to exterminate all suspected enemies of the people. Orlov was alerted as close associates and friends were arrested, tortured and shot, one by one. In 1938, Orlov realised that he would soon be next. When he received orders from Moscow to report to a Soviet ship in Antwerp, ...

    After his defection in 1938, he was afraid of being killed like other NKVD defectors such as Ignace Reiss. Therefore, he wrote a letter to Stalin promising to keep all secrets he knew if Stalin spared him and his family. Orlov kept his word and published his memoir The Secret History of Stalin's Crimesonly after the death of Stalin in March 1953, f...

    After the publication of The Secret History, Orlov was forced to come in from the cold. Both the US Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation were embarrassed by the revelation that a high-ranking NKVD officer (Orlov was a Major of State Security, equal to an army brigadier General) had been living underground in the United St...

    Orlov was shown to have produced a number of false claims to support his story and elevate his status in the eyes of his debriefing officials and the wider Western public. For instance, his rank was not general, as he had claimed, but merely a major. He also falsely claimed to play the leading role in recruiting the Cambridge Fivespy ring, while in...

    Orlov, Alexander (1953). The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes. New York: Random House
    Orlov, Alexander (1963). Handbook of Intelligence and Guerrilla Warfare. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Orlov, Alexander (September 22, 1993). "The Theory and Practice of Soviet Intelligence" (PDF). Studies in Intelligence. 7(2).
    Orlov, Alexander (2004). The March of Time: Reminiscences. London: St. Ermin's Press.
    "The Retiring Spy" Times Literary Supplement, September 28, 2001.
    John Costello and Oleg Tsarev, Deadly Illusions: The KGB Orlov Dossier. Crown, 1993. ISBN 0-517-58850-1
    Edward Gazur, Secret Assignment: the FBI's KGB General, St Ermin's Press, 2002 ISBN 0-9536151-7-0
  3. Prince Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov ( Russian: Князь Григорий Григорьевич Орлов; 6 October 1734, Bezhetsky Uyezd – 13 April 1783, Moscow) was a favourite of the Empress Catherine the Great of Russia. He became a leader of the 1762 coup which overthrew Catherine's husband Peter III of Russia and installed Catherine as empress.