02/04/2012 · Saladin (1137/1138–1193) was a Muslim military and political leader who as sultan (or leader) led Islamic forces during the Crusades. Saladin’s greatest triumph over the European Crusaders came at...
Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem in 1187 prompted Pope Gregory VIII to organize the Third Crusade. From 1189 to 1192, Saladin lost Acre and Jaffa and was defeated in the field at Arsūf . The Crusaders retreated to Europe without seizing Jerusalem, but Saladin’s military reputation had been damaged.
- History of Saladin
- Saladin in Egypt
- Saladin as The Sultan of Egypt
- Saladin and Zengid Rulers
- Saladin’s Conquest of Syria
- Saladin’s Campaign Against Assassins
- Battles Against Crusaders
- Capture of Jerusalem and Death
Saladin was a close military aid of the Zengid lord Nur-ud-Din. In 1163, he was sent by Nur-ud-Din to assist the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt in quelling unrest. He rapidly scored military successes in Egypt, gaining influence in Fatimid court and become a leading adviser by 1169. In 1171, as the Fatimid emperor al-Adid died, he took over the Egyptian throne. During the next few years, he cemented his hold on the throne by scoring victories on every side. In 1182 Saladin completed the Syrian conquest, wresting away the province from the Zengid rule. He defeated the crusadersin many decisive battles, most eminently in the 1187 Battle of Hattin, and brought back Palestinian territories into Muslim control. By the end of his life, he was effectively the ruler of whole of Egypt and Syria.
Saladin accompanied his uncle Shirkuh to Egypt on the orders of Nur-ud-Din. They were to provide military aid to the Shia caliph in Fatimid Egypt, al-Adid. Although Shirkuh and Saladin scored military victories, Shirkuh died in 1169. Upon his death, al-Adid appointed Saladin as a vizier in his court, giving him a lot of power and authority. At the time of his in-statement, he was supported by the Zengid rulers back in Syria. The same year, he suppressed a major revolt in Cairo successfully. Soon after becoming vizier, Saladin aligned himself with Nur-ud-Din and the Zengid dynasty, effectively undermining the Fatimid rule in Egypt. At the same time, he began what would later become a long series of battles against the Crusaders.
Until the death of al-Adid in 1171, Saladin was officially a part of the Fatimid rule, although essentially serving Nur-ud-Din’s subordinate. However, during his stay in Egypt, he had undermined the might of Fatimid dynastyat one hand and also wrested him free of the influence of Nur-ud-Din at the other. Until the death of al-Adid, Nur-ud-Din had frequently asked Saladin to depose the Shia caliph and restore Egypt to the rule of Abbasid caliphate. Saladin, however, waited until al-Adid’s natural death and then in 1171, proclaimed the Abbasid caliph as the actual caliph in the Friday sermons in Egypt. At the same time, with the end of formal Fatimid rule, Saladin effectively became the ruler of Egypt, bearing the title of the Sultan.
Saladin’s father Ayyoub was raised to high ranks by the Zengid ruler, Nur-ud-Din, who in turn was subordinate to the Abbasid Caliph. When Saladin began expanding his power base in Egypt, far from Nur-ud-Din’s Syrian domains, the Zengid lord became suspicious of his intents. He tried to reign in Saladin numerous times, but Saladin avoided this by refusing to directly meet Nur-ud-Din or leave his power base in Egypt. Later when Nur-ud-Din died in 1174, Syria remained insecure in the hands of his 11 year old son.
In 1174, the emir of Damascus appealed to Saladin to protect his realm against the decrees of the Zengid ruler from Aleppo, who had commissioned another emir to wrest control of Damascus. Saladin moved across the desert with 700 mounted men and reached Damascus in November, effectively taking control of the citadel and the city. Saladin proceeded to conquer Homs and Hama, and in 1175 defeated a huge army of the Zengid dynasty in a decisive battle. Following this victory, Saladin effectively became the Sultan of both Egypt and Syria, his name replacing the name of the Abbasid caliph in Friday sermons. The Abbasid caliph in Baghdad soon accepted Saladin’s position as Sultan.
Assassins were an Ismaili sect with strongholds in al-Nusayriyah Mountains in Syria. In 1175, a group of 13 assassins had made an attempt on Saladin’s life within his camp but were intercepted and killed. Saladin led a campaign against them in 1176 to take over their strongholds. However, the campaign was soon concluded without any notable victory. It is believed that Saladin to an agreement with the leader of the sect who formed an alliance with him, breaking their ties with the Crusaders.
Soon after cementing his position in both Egypt and Syria, Saladin began his long series of battles with the Crusaders, culminating in his control of Jerusalem. The first major battle was fought between Saladin’s forces and the army ofKing Baldwin, in which Saladin’s army won and captured many renowned knights. In 1187, Saladin’s army was pitted against the combined forces of Guy of Lusignan and Raymond III of Tripoli at the Battle of Hattin. In the ensuing battle, Saladin’s army inflicted a crushing defeat on the Crusader forces. Raynald of Chatillon, a menace to the trading caravans near theHoly Land, was executed at Saladin’s orders, although other high-ranking captives were spared. The final battles that Saladin fought in Holy Land were against the army of King Richard. Richard initially defeated Saladin’s army at the Battle of Arsufin 1191 but later had his army demolished by Saladin’s forces. Despite his attempts against Saladin, Richard couldn’t gain control of Jerusalem and...
Following his victory in the Battle of Hattin, Saladin laid siege to Jerusalem. In 1187, the city capitulated and Saladin offered generous terms of peace to the Frankish citizens, allowing most of them to escape unharmed by paying a small amount of ransom. He then allowed a large Jewish settlement near the city to resettle inside the city’s boundaries. The great Muslim leader died of natural causes in 1193 in Damascus, bequeathing most of his wealth to his subjects and his vast realm to his family. Saladin: The Sultan Who Vanquished the Crusaders and Built an Islamic Empire Paperback – November 28, 2017
Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate spanned Egypt, Syria, the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), the Hejaz (western Arabia), Yemen, parts of western North Africa, and Nubia .
08/03/2018 · Taking control of the city, Saladin elected to permit the Christians to retain control of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and allowed Christian pilgrimages. Unaware of the city's fall, Pope Gregory VIII issued a call for the Third Crusade on October 29. The focus of this crusade soon became the recapture of the city.
Saladin. 1963 | TV-MA | 3h 14m | Movies Based on Books. The Sultan of Egypt and Syria launches a campaign to retake Jerusalem amid the Crusades. Starring: Ahmad Mazhar, Salah Zo El Faqqar, Nadia Lotfi.
- Youssef Chahine
Saladin besieges the Knights Hospitaller castle of Krak des Chevaliers but withdraws to meet the Third Crusade. 1189 - 1192 The Third Crusade is formed with the aim of recapturing Jerusalem for Christendom.
The Kings of England and France made up their quarrel and received the sacred badge from the Archbishop of Tyre. Baldwin of Canterbury preached the Crusade, in which he was later to die before Acre, and a “Saladin Tax,” a tithe of every man’s wealth, was collected throughout the length and breadth of the land. …”.
Saladin's brother Al-Adil supplanted Saladin's sons in the Ayyubid succession, but lacked the authority required to unite the Muslim world of his brother. As a result, the kingdom of Jerusalem revived in a period of peace between 1194 and 1217. in 1213, Innocent III called for another Crusade at the Fourth Lateran Council .